pH indicator Articles

  • Impact of operating history on mixed culture fermentation microbial ecology and product mixture

    Mixed culture fermentation is an alternative to pure culture fermentation for production of biofuels and valuable products. A glucose-fed, continuous reactor was operated cyclically to a central pH of 5.5 from a number of precedent pHs, from 4.5 to 7.5. At each pH, stable chemical production was reached after 2 retention times and was held for least 2 further retention times prior to the next ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • pH Theory & Measurement

    WHAT IS pH? pH is a short form for the Power (p) of Hydrogen (H). pH is defined as the negative log of the hydrogen ion activity, aH~ or the effective hydrogen ion concentration. Descriptive Definition pH is a unit of measure which describes the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a solution. Acidity is defined as the concentration of hydrogen ions [H+] in ...


    By IC Controls Ltd.

  • What are the main indicators of water quality?

    “Water is the driving force of all nature;” so said Leonardo da Vinci. The survival of our planet depends on the availability of water and the condition that it is in. It is therefore vital to make sure that it is able to provide a hospitable environment for those that live in it, and is free from harmful levels of substances for those that drink it. Not ...


    By Aquaread Limited

  • Investigation of Cu(II) adsorption from aqueous solutions by NKF-6 zeolite

    Adsorption of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions using NKF-6 zeolite was investigated by batch technique under ambient conditions. The adsorption was investigated as a function of pH, ionic strength, fulvic acid (FA), foreign ions and temperature. The results indicated that the adsorption of Cu(II) on NKF-6 zeolite gradually increases from 0 to 90% with increasing pH at pH6.5. ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Reverse osmosis water chemistry

    Alkalinity: Alkalinity is comprised primarily of carbon dioxide, bicarbonate, carbonate and hydroxides. Naturally occurring alkalinity is the earth’s natural buffering system in that small doses of strong acids (e.g. acid rain) react with alkalinity and result in relatively small changes in pH. Carbon dioxide and bicarbonate are in a balance between the pH range of 4.4 and 8.2. At a pH of 4.4 or ...

  • Adsorption of hexavalent chromium on dunite

    The paper presents and discusses the effect of various physicochemical parameters (e.g. pH, ionic strength, Cr(VI) initial concentration, amount of the adsorbent, temperature and contact time between metal ion and adsorbent) on the adsorption efficiency of Cr(VI) on dunite in aqueous solutions under atmospheric conditions. Evaluation of the experimental data shows that dunite presents increased ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Phosphorus removal from anaerobically digested swine wastewater through struvite precipitation

    Phosphorus removal from agricultural wastewater streams is an important aspect of managing surface water quality, due to the contribution of phosphorus to eutrophication. Removal of phosphorus through struvite precipitation allows for its recovery as a potential fertilizer, and by determining the best conditions for struvite precipitation the removal process can be optimized. The effects of pH, ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Effects of pH on uranium uptake and oxidative stress responses induced in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Uranium (U) causes oxidative stress in Arabidopsis thaliana plants grown at pH 5.5. However, U speciation and as such its toxicity strongly depends on environmental parameters, e.g. pH. It is unknown how different U species determine U uptake and translocation within plants and how they might affect the oxidative defense mechanisms of these plants. The present study aimed to analyze U uptake ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Titrimetric determination of sulfate

    Most methods for the titrimetric determination of sulfate do not work reliably if interfering divalent cations such as calcium and magne¬sium are present in the sample. Using the methods described below calcium and magnesium will not interfere and can even be deter¬mined in the same analysis. IntroductionSeveral different titration methods are used to determine sulfate ...


    By Mettler - Toledo Int. Inc

  • Influence of solute dissociation constants on the optimum adsorption of weak electrolytes on activated carbons

    The pH of solutions has dramatic effects on the adsorption capacity of activated carbons from solutions, while the adsorption curves for weak electrolytes acquired as a function of pH show maxima at some intermediate pH. This intermediate pH is usually near the pKa of the electrolyte. Some apparent controversy inherent in these statements has, however, motivated experimental and analytical ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Photodegradation of diclofenac in aqueous solution by simulated sunlight irradiation: kinetics, thermodynamics and pathways

    Diclofenac (DCF) is one of the most frequently detected pharmaceuticals in various water samples. This paper studied the effects of aquatic environmental factors (pH, temperature and dissolved organic matter) on photodegradation of DCF under simulated sunlight. The results demonstrate that degradation pathways proceed via pseudo first-order kinetics in all cases and the photodegradation of DCF ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Study of precipitation chemistry over an industrial city

    The growing trend of industrialization has marked impact on the atmospheric chemistry around the globe. Such impacts are also predicted for developing countries like India. Acid precipitation due to secondary pollutants is one of them. The present investigation was conducted with an aim of studying the precipitation chemistry over Asansol city, India during the monsoon season. The rain water ...

  • Removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution by lignocellulosic solid wastes

    The batch removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution using lignocellulosic solid wastes such as sawdust and pine leaves under different experimental conditions was investigated in this study. The influence of pH, temperature, contact time, initial concentration of Cr(VI) and particle size on the chromium removal was investigated. Adsorption of Cr(VI) is highly pH-dependent and the results indicate ...

  • Optimisation of radiolysis of Reactive Red 120 dye in aqueous solution using ionising 60Co gamma radiation by response surface methodology

    In recent years, employing radiation technology is gaining great interest in degradation of industrial effluents. In this work the possibility of using gamma irradiation to degrade Reactive Red 120 (C.I.292775) was explored. The effects of pH, dose of gamma irradiation and concentration of dye were examined and their interaction were also established based on their response. For the analysis ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • pH Probe Maintenance

    The success or failure of pH measurement depends on the proper application of the probe and proper subsequent maintenance of the probe. The procedures described within apply to the most common pH probe in use today and that is the flat surface combination pH probe. The most common failure mode associated with pH probes is breakage. The pH electrode is a very thin glass membrane that is easily ...


    By Digital Analysis Corp.

  • Conversion of food waste into hydrogen by thermophilic acidogenesis

    Conversion of food waste into hydrogen by thermophilic acidogenesis was investigated as a function of organic loading rate (OLR), hydraulic retention time (HRT) and pH in a continuous stirred tank reactor. In order to identify hydrogen-producing microorganisms, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) – amplified V3 region of 16S rDNA analysis was ...


    By Springer

  • Adsorption removal of tetracycline from aqueous solution by anaerobic granular sludge: equilibrium and kinetic studies

    High concentration animal wastewater is often contaminated by tetracycline and an upflow anaerobic sludge bioreactor (UASB) with granular sludge is often used to treat the wastewater. The investigation of the adsorption process of tetracycline on anaerobic granular sludge during anaerobic digestion of animal wastewater will increase the understanding of antibiotics behavior in the UASB reactor. ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Study of equilibrium and kinetic models for removal of chromium (VI) and lead (II) by modified feather by H 2 O 2

    Heavy metals are sorely toxic for the environment and human. In this study, the ability of feather for sorption chromium and lead from aqueous solution was investigated. All the experiments were carried out in a batch system. For this aim, the effect of various parameters such as pH, temperature, contact time, dosage sorbent and initial concentration were investigated. Results showed that ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Removal of aniline and phenol from water using raw and aluminum hydroxide-modified diatomite

    The feasibility of using raw diatomite and aluminum hydroxide-modified diatomite (Al-diatomite) for removal of aniline and phenol from water was investigated. Their physicochemical characteristics such as pHsolution, point of zero charge (pHPZC), surface area, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy was determined. After the raw diatomite was modified, the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Redox properties of nanostructured aniline oxidation products formed under different pH conditions

    A series of aniline oxidation products were produced from the chemical oxidation of aniline by ammonium persulphate under constant pH STAT conditions (pH 1 to 7). Regular granular polyaniline was obtained in the samples prepared at pH 1 to 3, with moderate to high conductivities. The presence of polyaniline was also indicated in a further sample prepared under 'falling pH' conditions. The samples ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

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