photosynthetically active radiation Articles

  • Relationships between photosynthetically active radiation and clearness index at Bloemfontein, South Africa

    Relationships between photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and solar radiation (SR) and between diffuse radiation and global radiation at Bloemfontein, South Africa were investigated. The ratio of PAR to SR (PAR/SR) has been reported from many places in the northern hemisphere, but there were not many PAR/SR measurements documented from the southern hemisphere, including the study region. ...


    By Springer

  • Non-Ionising Radiation

    Pressures on the environment may occur through chemical, physical and biological agents. The subject of this study is physical agents, where physical fields are examined. Physical fields are part of the natural environment. Depending upon their properties and the surrounding conditions, physical fields are transmitted through the spaces in which we live, potentially affecting human health and ...

  • Solar radiation (PAR, UV-A, UV-B) penetration in a shallow maturation pond operating in a tropical climate

    Solar radiation is considered the primary route for disinfection of pathogenic bacteria in maturation ponds. There is scarce information on depth profiling and attenuation of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), UV-A and UV-B in shallow maturation ponds operating in tropical climates. Measurements of solar irradiance of the three wavelength ranges, together with turbidity, have been ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • A new photo-activated sludge system for nitrification by an algal-bacterial consortium in a photo-bioreactor with biomass recycle

    Wastewater treatment technologies requiring large areas may be less feasible in urbanizing regions of developing countries. Therefore, a new technology, named photo-activated sludge (PAS), was investigated to combine the advantages of regular activated sludge systems with those of algae ponds for the removal of ammonium. The PAS consisted of a mixed photo-bioreactor, continuously fed with BG-11 ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Effects of photodemethylation on the methylmercury budget of boreal Norwegian lakes

    MeHg concentrations in freshwater fish from southeastern Norway continue to increase, highlighting the need for a comprehensive understanding of MeHg sources, cycling, and degradation in the aquatic environment. The authors assessed the importance of photodemethylation (PD) in the MeHg budget of four Norwegian lakes. PD rates (kpd) were determined through incubation experiments with ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Estimation of stand productivity from multi-angular optical remote sensing

    Global modeling of gross primary production (GPP) is a critical component of climate change research. On local scales, GPP can be assessed from measuring CO2 exchange above the plant canopy using tower-based eddy covariance (EC) systems. The limited footprint inherent to this method however, restricts observations to relatively few discrete areas making continuous predictions of global CO2 fluxes ...


    By PP Systems

  • Impact of sunlight/dark storage on natural spring water bottled in polyethylene terephthalate

    The effect of two environmental variables, ultraviolet radiation and external air temperature, on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottled water was investigated over 100 days. The high pressure liquid chromatography results showed the migration of carbonyl compounds (acetaldehyde, formaldehyde and acetone) from PET bottles into water over 3 months. Storage of PET bottled water enhanced the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Taming taste and odor (T & O) problems in a water treatment plant

    Taming Taste & Odor (T&O) Problems Some taste and odors are caused by mineral constituents in the water, e.g. excess chlorine and hydrogen sulfide. However the majority of taste and odor are the result of biologic activity. Spring turnover of lakes and algal blooms are responsible for Blue-green algae (Cyanobacterium), Green algae and diatoms that introduce filter clogging organisms ...


    By Jenfitch, LLC

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