pm2.5 sampling Articles

  • Is it time to upgrade the PM2.5 federal reference method?

    The fine particulate matter (PM2.5) Federal Reference Method (FRM) has in many respects been a great success. When the method was implemented, there was some doubt that the state and local monitoring agencies that routinely provide air quality data would be able to manage a program, which often distinguishes one location from another by just a few μg/m3. As it turns out, data from the FRM ...

  • Measuring CO2 to Optimise the Bulk Storage of Food

    Meeting the food requirements of a growing global population is becoming increasingly difficult. Despite the need for additional food, it is estimated that 50-60% of grain is lost after harvesting, at a cost of about $1 trillion per year.1 One of the major reasons for lost grain is spoilage due to mould or insect infestation during storage.2 To provide a ...


    By Edinburgh Instruments Ltd

  • A quick guide to oil analysis for engine test applications

    Reliability testing is a very important component of new engine development. Engineers need to fully understand and chart the engine lifetime performance under a variety of conditions before mass production may be considered. Many important performance data parameters are collected in real time through the many different types of sensors that are connected to the engine in the test cell and oil ...


    By Spectro Scientific

  • Influence of the Stirring Mechanism on the Precision of the Fusion for VITRIOX GAS and ELECTRIC

    Introduction Homogenization of the melt is an important aspect of sample preparation for X-ray fluorescence analysis using fusion. Whether the fused bead breaks or remains mechanically stable after cooling, depends largely on the homogenization. Once a stable fused bead has been obtained, it is only possible to judge if the sample is truly homogeneously dissolved in the flux by way of ...


    By Fluxana GmbH Co. KG

  • Return on Investment Using MANTECH Multi-Parameter Analysis Systems - Case Study

    Since 2008 Eurofins has been using MANTECH systems at various facilities around the world. Their first system ran 200,000 samples in five years. The unit analyzed 7 different parameters per sample and operated 24 hours/day, 7 days/week. This generated €5,000,000 in revenue. Their initial investment was €60,000. The system discussed in this case study analyses pH, conductivity, ...


    By MANTECH

  • Quality assurance and Quality control technical note

    Introduction For almost 50 years HYDROLAB products have provided dependable sensor technology in a multiple parameter instrument for montioring essential indicators required for assessing water quality in natural waters. Useable data are the lifeblood of any environmental water quality monitoring program and variation in measurement processes impairs the quality of the data that water ...


    By The OTT Hydromet Group

  • Characteristics of PM2.5 in rural areas of southern Jiangsu Province, China

    To understand pollution level and possible sources ofatmospheric fine particulates in rural areas of southern Jiangsu Province of China, samples of PM2.5 were collected and analyzed in Xueyan Town and Taihu Lake Station over three seasons from July 2002 to January 2003. The mass concentrations of PM2.5 and 14 principal component elements were obtained. The results showed that pollution of PM2.5 ...


    By IOS Press

  • Traffic emission effects on ambient air pollution by PM2.5–related PAH in Upper Silesia, Poland

    The ambient concentration of particle–bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated in two industrial towns in Upper Silesia, Poland. The 24 h samples of PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 µm) were collected simultaneously at busy roads (or crossroads) and at an urban background site. Additionally, the samples were collected during the heaviest traffic density (rush ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Time series analysis of PM2.5 and PM10−2.5 mass concentration in the city of Sao Carlos, Brazil

    The temporal trends of PM2.5 and PM10−2.5 fractions of the atmospheric Particulate Matter (PM) concentrations in the city centre of Sao Carlos were studied. The mass concentrations were measured using a dichotomous sampler. The samples were obtained weekly using a 24-hour sampling time, and the period of study covers the years 2001 to 2006. The SARIMA model from the R statistical package was used ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Biodegradation Tests for Wastewater Samples

    Biodegradation Tests for Wastewater Samples Biodegradation tests usually involve comparison of the oxygen uptake of a test sample – or gas production for anoxic or anaerobic tests – to that for a readily biodegradable control substrate (usually acetic acid, ethanol, or aniline). While biodegradation characteristics can vary among chemical types and wastewater sources, typical patterns are shown ...


    By Challenge Technology

  • Oil Sampling Best Practices

    Obtaining a representative oil sample from a closed loop lubrication system is essential to any good oil analysis program. As oil analysis programs become more standardized for routine monitoring, especially within equipment warranty support programs, equipment makers provide more sampling points on new equipment. These ...


    By Spectro Scientific

  • Sampling moisture in the soil profile

    Patterns of water replenishment and use give rise to large spatial variations in soil moisture over the depth of the soil profile. Accurate measurements of profile water content are therefore the basis of any water budget study. When monitored accurately, profile measurements show the rates of water use, amounts of deep percolation, and amounts of water stored for plant use.Experimental ...


    By METER Group, Inc.

  • Sampling of Saturated and Unsaturated Sands by Freezing

    A 600-mm-long, 100-mm-wide, and 20-mm-thick steel plate containing a wavey groove carrying chilled ethanol at -40°C was used successfully to obtain undisturbed frozen samples of saturated clean sand. The freezing probe was also used in an unsaturated sand dune to obtain samples at a depth of 3.0 m. For sands above the groundwater level, an imbibition test is, however, required prior to freezing ...


    By ASTM International

  • Groundwater: Low-flow Purging and Sampling

    Significant timesavings, improved sample process integrity, quality assurance and minimal quantities of potentially contaminated purge water to manage - are attractive as the focus on groundwater quality sharpens and economics demand best cost-benefit based methods Water has become a vitally important resource.  Maintaining its quality and quantity and avoiding pollution are set to be ...


    By Geotech

  • Measurement of TOC in High-Salt Sample

    The quantity of organic matter in seawater is important in the research and monitoring of marine pollution as an indicator of organic pollution. The salt content in seawater is typically about 3.5 %, but using the Shimadzu total organic carbon analyzer, it is possible to measure the TOC directly without dilution or other pretreatment procedures. Here, we introduce an example of measurement of ...

  • New Project Sample - Case Study

    In-house pipe bursting provides a cost-effective solution for I & I reduction Challenge Replace 200 miles of aging sewer pipe at 5 miles/year over 40 years with predictable costs and reliable ROI, to get rid of I/I spikes in one of the wettest climates on America’s West Coast. Solution We help this ...


    By TRIC Tools Inc.

  • Analysis of biogenic amines food and physiological samples

    Histamine and other polyamines such as Putrescine, Cadaverine, Spermidine and Spermine are products of decomposition. The level of histamine, in particular, has been used as a regulatory guideline for degree of decomposition in fish. Also, Histamine and Tyramine levels are of interest to producers of wine and cheese. The polyamines, Spermidine, Spermine and Putrescine are elevated in neoplastic ...


    By Pickering Laboratories, Inc.

  • Pure water pH measurement in low conductivity samples

    Normally, pH measurements are made in water with 1,000 to 10,000 uS/cm conductivity. The conductivity conies from dissolved solids, typically, salts plus net acid or base which explains the exhibited pH. These dissolved substances are in the solution in ion form, which makes such solutions conducting. With 1,000 uS/cm conductivity of mobile ions pH electrodes have a good circuit and give fast, ...


    By IC Controls Ltd.

  • Use of Eight Well Purging and Sampling Record

    This article describes a groundwater well purging and sampling form that can be downloaded at our website. A click on the articles button will take you to a list of Monitoring Tips and Procedures articles, one of which is the sampling form. The form can be used to record  indicator parameters pH, conductivity, temperature, etc., taken during ...


    By RotaPump, Inc

  • The 10 Key Factors in Selecting a Stack Sampling Firm

    Summary: This document is a summary of the key factors that you should take into consideration when hiring a stack testing firm.This has been prepared in conjunction with the ASTM criteria for standard practice of testing companies.The ASTM criteria has been supplemented, based on 125 years of direct testing experience, which is the combined years of experience of the individuals that contributed ...

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