pool chlorination Articles

  • Chlorine levels in pools

    In response to a SportExcel CPD seminar in April 2004 on pool water disinfection ISRM is reissuing this updated guidance. Also, recent press reports have highlighted the theoretical risks of high chlorine levels in swimming pools in relation to both pregnant women and levels of childhood asthma. This further reinforces the need for operators to provide the highest pool water standards possible. ...

  • Chlorine

    Due to the complexity of chlorine chemistry, the activity and forms of chlorine is not well understood. Its reactions are not always 'predictable' and are somewhat unique. This memo is intended to provide some simple insight of the most common forms of chlorine that we at Osmonics® encounter. The most basic form of chlorine is Chlorine Gas (Cl2). This is usually the cheapest form of chlorination, ...

  • DBPs in a chlorinated indoor swimming pool: occurrences and modeling

    Swimming pool water contains higher chlorine residual and is maintained at a higher temperature than tap water. It constitutes environments with high levels of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in water and air due to continuous disinfection and constant organic loading from the bathers. Exposure to DBPs is inevitable for any bather or trainer while such exposure can have cancer and non-cancer ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Optimal pH in chlorinated swimming pools – balancing formation of by-products

    In order to identify the optimal pH range for chlorinated swimming pools, the formation of trihalomethanes, haloacetonitriles and trichloramine was investigated in the pH-range 6.5–7.5 in batch experiments. An artificial body fluid analogue was used to simulate bather load as the precursor for by-products. The chlorine-to-precursor ratio used in the batch experiments influenced the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • The Wonders of Ammonia & Chlorine

    The two most common chemicals found in your home, office and commercial facilities in one form or another are Ammonia (NH3) and Chlorine (Cl2). They are also two of the oldest and most widely produced chemicals in commercial use around the world. Ammonia, a refrigerant by “nature” Refrigeration by mechanical means goes back to the 1800s and ammonia was among the earliest chemicals to ...

  • Sanitation Using Ozone & Chlorine

    For nearly 100 years, ozone has been used all over the world for water sanitation. It is nature’s strongest oxidizer and has a byproduct of pure oxygen. Chlorine, on the other hand, is a very effective, time-proven chemical, but is ineffective against hard-to-kill microorganisms such as cryptosporidium. It also has some unpleasant byproducts. Together, however, these two substances can ...

  • Gas Detection in Public Swimming Pool Facilities

    Recreational facilities’ indoor swimming pools provide a venue for exercise, competition and fun for all ages as patrons splash, swim, dive and float around in the crystal clear water. To keep the water fit to swim in requires a disinfectant maintenance program commonly using Chlorine, or Chlorine and Ozone. Chlorine is a powerful, corrosive disinfectant and in both gas and liquid forms it ...

  • Water quality and treatment in public swimming pools

    Public swimming pools all use chlorine, unfortunately the chlorine reacts with ammonium to form a volatile gas called trichloramine. It is the this gas which stings your eyes while swimming, trichloramine also gives swimming pools their characteristic chlorine smell. Trichloramine will damage the mucous linning of your lungs, and in the case of small children it will pre-dispose their lungs ...


    By Dryden Aqua Ltd

  • Importance of Air & Water Testing in Indoor Pools

    Have you ever wondered why your eyes hurt or why you have a cough after swimming at an indoor pool? We all assume that it’s from too much chlorine in the pool but that is false! If the pool staff doesn’t regularly test and monitor both the air and water indoors, the environment becomes very toxic and unsafe to everyone in the building. Water is an essential ingredient for all life as ...

  • Case study - UV systems for spas & hydro pools

    With the rise of health centres and leisure clubs throughout the UK, a key feature in many modern facilities is the inclusion of spas and hydro pools.  As a specialist aquatic application, spas and hydro pools feature high turnover rates, high bather loads, increased turbulence and water temperatures above 35oC.  This combination of factors provides a perfect breeding ground for harmful ...


    By atg UV Technology

  • Association Between Swimming Pool Operator Certification and Reduced Pool Chemistry Violations—Nebraska, 2005–2006

    Previous studies have recommended mandatory education for all public pool operators, but substantiating data are limited. This study evaluates associations between pool operator certification and chemistry violations by using 2005–2006 Nebraska routine pool inspection reports. Training and certification for nonmunicipal pool operators are only required in two Nebraska counties. Free chlorine ...

  • Florida SunSentinel.com mentions our pool check strips

    When Midwesterner Ken Christensen came to Florida, he moved into a house with a pool and was baffled. Christensen, author of the Romantic America series of travel books that focused on romantic places to stay, was a creative guy. Chemistry was never his forte. Blindly, he brought his water samples to the pool store, they told him what to do and he did it. But the Sept. 11 tragedy's impact ...

  • Chlorine Safety and Prevention: How to Protect Yourself from Chlorine Leaks

    While chlorine gas is widely used in swimming pools, water treatment facilities, cleaning products, pharmaceutical products, and in many other industries, the gas is highly toxic when handled improperly. Training your workers on how to safely use chlorine is one part of health and safety best practices; monitoring your workplace for chlorine leaks is another. Learn about the hidden dangers in ...

  • Hot springs swimming pool: Glenwood Springs, Colorado case study

    Ozone Water Treatment, Color Removal and Ozone Purification In 1991, the Hot Springs Pool and Lodge Resort installed a DIN-Standard ozonation system for treating the world’s largest hot springs-fed swimming pool. The following main reasons were responsible for this decision: The suppliers of gaseous chlorine had dwindled down to a single source, as it had become ...


    By BiOzone

  • Review of swimming-associated cryptosporidiosis and Cryptosporidium oocysts removals from swimming pools

    In this paper, outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis in swimming pools in the last 20 years are summarized. Cryptosporidium oocysts are very resistant to many disinfectants, including chlorine, one of the most widely-used disinfectants in swimming pools. Ozone or UV is shown to inactivate Cryptosporidium, while not effective to newly introduced Cryptosporidium and bacteria because of no residual ozone ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Gas Detection in Recreation Facilities: Can the same detector work for pools and arenas?

    It is not uncommon for the same recreational facility to offer both skating and swimming amenities, two very different environments with different potential gas hazards. Given the fact that there is a possibility of 6 different types of gas to monitor and the large area between the two types of facilities, a single detector will not provide the monitoring requirements for both areas. It is ...

  • Ultraviolet disinfection systems, the best solution to school swimming pools

    School swimming pools are a valuable asset, and are now present in the majority of high schools and higher education facilities throughout the UK.  Whilst school pools vary in size, shape and usage, many school swimming facilities are facing a common dilemma in their water disinfection strategy.  Existing treatment regimes are often badly designed, under sized or simply outdated, which ...


    By atg UV Technology

  • Profile of Ozone/Bromine Sanitation Systems for City of Tucson Municipal Pools

    Due to the inherent risks associated with the use of chlorine gas as a sanitizer for the City of Tucson’s twenty-six municipal swimming pool sites, I found myself in search of an alternative water sanitation method. The challenge was clear; find a system that would be safer to manage than gas chlorine, yet yield the same favorable sanitation and water quality results. Since all the sites ...

  • Analysis of enterovirus and adenovirus presence in swimming pools in Cyprus from 2007–2008

    An analysis was carried out to determine the presence of enteroviruses and adenoviruses in public swimming pools in Cyprus. The effectiveness of the commonly implemented disinfection procedure of chlorination was confirmed by determination of bacteriological markers. Analysis of viral presence was carried out by sampling random swimming pools from the five major cities in Cyprus during a period ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • atg UV provide solution to chemical balance in swimming pool applications

    Client: Gloucester Institute of Technology   Location: Gloucester, USA Service: Swimming Pool UV Disinfection Description: atg UV provide solution to poor water quality due to high levels of chloramines. The Gloucester Institute of Technology has chosen a state-of-the-art atg UV Technology Ultraviolet water ...


    By atg UV Technology

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