pore water conductivity Articles

  • Why evaluate hydraulic fluid compatibility?

    When introducing a new control fluid to hydraulic systems, it is important to ensure that the new liquid or mixture is of equal or superior quality to the previous fluid. If the new mixture is incompatible, precipitate may form and result in an overall inferior fluid. This can speed up clogging or damage the system. When a manufacturer of construction machinery releases a new line of bulldozers ...


    By Sterlitech Corporation

  • Pore-morphology-based simulations of drainage and wetting processes in porous media

    Soil hydraulic properties relating saturation, water pressure, and hydraulic conductivity are known to exhibit hysteresis. In this paper, we focus on the determination of the water retention curve for a porous medium through a novel pore-scale simulation technique that is based on mathematical morphology. We develop an algorithm that allows for the representation of three-dimensional randomly ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Pedotransfer functions to determine water conducting macroporosity in South African soils

    Macropores play an important role in the rapid transport of water, solutes and pollutants through the soil. Transport through these pores (>0.5 mm) is dominated by gravitational forces (i.e. matrix forces have low impact) resulting in flow rates orders of magnitude higher than rates that would be predicted, posing problems for modelling and understanding water and solute transport through soils. ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Calculation of ceramic pot filter hydraulic conductivity using falling-head data

    Flowrate is used as a predictor of ceramic pot filter (CPF) disinfection effectiveness, and the relationship between flowrate and porosity has been examined in several studies. However, hydraulic conductivity, not porosity, is the constant of proportionality that describes flow through porous media. Equations have been developed to estimate the hydraulic conductivity of CPF side walls and bottom ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Physically based closed-form expression for the bimodal unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function

    Simulation of flow and contaminant transport through the vadose zone requires accurate parameterization of the soil hydraulic properties. This requirement is particularly important for soils with a complex structure. In the present study, a physically based closed-form expression for the bimodal unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function is proposed for soils with bimodal pore-size ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Ceramic membranes for water treatment

    Ceramic membranes, different in pore size and membrane material, were applied to remove particulate and dissolved matter from different spent filter backwash water types as well as from dam water. The study was conducted in pilot scale under conditions typical for waterworks at a dam water treatment plant. A comparison of different ceramic membranes implied that total membrane resistance was more ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Tensile deformation of polytetrafluoroethylene hollow fiber membranes used for water purification

    The tensile deformation behavior of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) hollow fiber membranes is studied. PTFE membranes at present have sub-micron pores with an open cell structure, which plays a critical role in water purification. One of the main challenges in water purification is that the pore structure becomes covered with biofouling, leading to blocked pores. To maintain the capacity for ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Foulants analyses for NF membranes with different feed waters

    Two different NF membranes were operated to remove natural organic matter (NOM) originating from Dongbok Lake in Korea. Coagulation/sedimentation and sand filtration treated waters as membrane feed waters were used. Tested NF membranes such as RF (Saehan, Korea) and NF90 (Filmtec, USA) membranes were exhibited slightly different pore size distribution, hydrophobicity and surface charge in terms ...


    By Toray Chemical Korea

  • Water and vapor movement with condensation and evaporation in a sandy column

    The diffusion of warm, humid air into an initially cold, dry, sandy column was analyzed to study the movement of water vapor and liquid water under nonisothermal and low water content conditions. The analysis was performed using the HYDRUS-1D code. While the water retention curve of sand was measured experimentally, the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function was inversely estimated from the ...

  • Experimental Investigation of Thermal Dispersion in Saturated Soils with One-Dimensional Water Flow

    Microscopic differences in soil pore water velocity cause hydrodynamic dispersion of solute transport. By analogy, thermal dispersion should be considered in soils where water and heat flow occur simultaneously. Few published data are available regarding thermal dispersion in soils. In this study, we investigated thermal dispersion influences on heat transport in saturated soils with ...

  • The removal of disinfection by-product precursors from water with ceramic membranes

    The main objective of this work was to investigate the effectiveness of ceramic ultrafiltration (UF) membranes with different pore sizes in removing natural organic matter (NOM) from model solutions and drinking water sources. A lab-scale, cross-flow ceramic membrane test unit was used in all experiments. Two different single-channel tubular ceramic membrane modules were tested with average pore ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Ultraviolet Light Oxidation of Free-Chlorine in Water

    Chlorine is the most frequently used chemical for water disinfection. Many industrial and commercial manufacturing facilities cannot tolerate the introduction of chlorine into the process because of contamination and unwanted chemical reactions. Chlorine affects the flavour and odour of drinks and fluids, accelerates corrosion on process vessels and piping, and can also damage delicate process ...

  • Influence of water compositions on fouling of plane organic membrane in frontal filtration: application to water and wastewater clarification

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and quantify the filterability of suspended/soluble organic and suspended inorganic matter in a condition without and with chemical conditioning on membrane fouling using cake filtration model. The experiments were conducted with different feed water concentrations under a given TMP (0.2 to 0.5 bar). The fouling potential was examined and described in terms ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • The effects of the ph-influenced structure on the dielectric properties of Kaolinite–water mixtures

    The properties of clay–water mixtures are reflected in their wide-frequency dielectric responses that result from different polarization mechanisms. This feature is useful in various soil science applications but has not been systematically investigated. The objective of this study was to characterize the broadband dielectric spectrum of kaolinite sediments with different charge properties and ...

  • Application of Membrane Technology for the Recovery and Reuse of Water

    Abstract As water and sewer costs are expected to increase over the next decade, membrane technology will continue to be a viable and economical option in the recovery and reuse of water. This paper describes the mechanism of membrane effected separation (specifically reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration and microfiltration), membranes commercially available, membrane element configurations, and how ...


  • Evaluation of Sampling and Field-Filtration Methods for the Analysis of Trace Metals in Ground Water

    Selected ground water sampling and field-filtration methods were evaluated to determine their effects on field parameters and trace metal concentrations in samples collected under several types of field conditions. The study focused on conditions where traditional approaches may produce turbid samples, which often leads to filtration of suspended particles from the sample before laboratory ...


    By QED Environmental Systems

  • Crossflow Membrane Filtration High-Purity Water Systems

    INTRODUCTION As the electronics industry continues to provide us with such products as high resolution television, notebook size portable computers and cars with automatic navigation systems, it becomes necessary to produce semiconductors with finer device geometries to allow for efficient placement of more circuits per a given area. This requires increased control of a semiconductor's material ...

  • Hydrogenotrophic denitrification of drinking water using a hollow fibre membrane bioreactor

    ABSTRACTThe objective of this research was to investigate the performance of a hollow fibre membrane bioreactor (HFMB) for hydrogenotrophic denitrification of contaminated drinking water. In the HFMB, H2 flows through the lumen of the hydrophobic hollow fibres and diffuses to an attached H2 oxidizing biofilm. Nitrate in the contaminated water serves as an electron acceptor. A hydrogenotrophic ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Water hits and sticks: Findings challenge a century of assumptions about soil hydrology

    Researchers have discovered that some of the most fundamental assumptions about how water moves through soil in a seasonally dry climate such as the Pacific Northwest are incorrect – and that a century of research based on those assumptions will have to be reconsidered. A new study by scientists from Oregon State University and the Environmental Protection Agency showed – much to the ...


  • Low-Flow (Minimal Drawdown) Ground-Water Sampling Procedures

    Untitled Document Background The Regional Superfund Ground Water Forum is a group of ground-water ...


    By Solinst Canada Ltd.

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