process water chlorination Articles

  • Chlorination

    Chlorination is the process of adding compounds containing the element chlorine, generally in oxidation state (0) or (I), to water as a method of water purification to make it fit for ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Chlorination

    Chlorination is the process of adding compounds containing the element chlorine, generally in oxidation state (0) or (I), to water as a method of water purification to make it fit for ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Chlorine

    Due to the complexity of chlorine chemistry, the activity and forms of chlorine is not well understood. Its reactions are not always 'predictable' and are somewhat unique. This memo is intended to provide some simple insight of the most common forms of chlorine that we at Osmonics® encounter. The most basic form of chlorine is Chlorine Gas (Cl2). This is usually the cheapest form of chlorination, ...

  • Controlling the addition of Chlorine into a Process

    There are several methods for controlling the addition of chlorine into a process. These methods include flow proportional injection, ORP (oxidation reduction potential) or a residual chlorine analyzer. Each method measures a different process characteristic. Depending on the specific type of process being controlled, there generally is a best choice for controlling the injection of either ...


    By Walchem, Iwaki America Inc.

  • Control of trichloramine formation by two-step chlorination in water purification processes

    Chlorinous odour in drinking water is of great concern in Japan. Some water utilities use trichloramine (NCl3) as an index of chlorinous odour and are attempting to control its levels in drinking water. In the present study, the effects of two-step chlorination, involving addition of chlorine twice, on NCl3 control were investigated. The results regarding ammonia (NH3), ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Sequential chlorination for reclaimed water disinfection

    ABSTRACT The Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County (Districts) operate seven tertiary water reclamation plants (WRPs) with a combined treatment capacity of approximately 200 million gallons per day (MGD). Chloramination is used at these WRPs for effluent disinfection. It was recently discovered that chloramination results in formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), a compound with ...

  • Drinking water: the problem of chlorinous odours

    Chlorinous off-flavours in drinking water are a leading cause of complaints to Australian water utilities and other utilities worldwide. The occurrence and causes of chlorinous odours in drinking water were investigated with the use of an odour panel, trained using a modified flavour profile analysis technique. A new system for classifying water types according to the causes of chlorinous odours ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Effect of advanced oxidation processes on nonylphenol removal with respect to chlorination in drinking water treatment

    Any nonylphenol compounds found in water have to be removed since they are endocrine disruptors. In this study, natural water from the river Ebro fortified with nonylphenol compounds (4n-nonylphenol and technical nonylphenol) is used as a sample in order to simulate a real situation in drinking water treatment plants. The aim is to compare conventional disinfection with advanced oxidation ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Elution of bisphenol A and its chlorination by-products from lined pipes in water supply process

    Elution of bisphenol A (BPA), chlorinated BPAs (i.e., 3-chlorobisphenol A, sum of 3,5-dichlorobisphenol A and 3,3′-dichlorobisphenol A, 3,3′,5-trichlorobisphenol A, and 3,3′,5,5′-tetrachlorobisphenol A) and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) from lined pipes coated with two epoxy resins were investigated in a 24-month continuous test passing tap water. BPA, chlorinated ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Drinking Water Treatment Process

    Most drinking water comes from a surface water source, such as a lake or river, or a groundwater source, such as a well or spring. This water requires treatment before it can be safely consumed; the level to which the water is treated depends on the source of the water and also on federal regulations. In the United States, for example, the Safe Drinking Water Act was created by the Environmental ...


    By Brentwood Industries, Inc.

  • Ultraviolet Light Oxidation of Free-Chlorine in Water

    Chlorine is the most frequently used chemical for water disinfection. Many industrial and commercial manufacturing facilities cannot tolerate the introduction of chlorine into the process because of contamination and unwanted chemical reactions. Chlorine affects the flavour and odour of drinks and fluids, accelerates corrosion on process vessels and piping, and can also damage delicate process ...

  • Reference: Clever water recycling with chlorine dioxide

    Vapour water at the Crailsheim-Dinkelsbühl dairy is disinfected and then returned to the production process by means of a chlorine dioxide system. The great news is that this significantly reduces water consumption and operating costs. Fewer costs The 160 members of staff at the diary "Milchwerk Crailsheim-Dinkelsbühl eG" process around 130,000 tonnes of milk a year, ...

  • NOM reactivity with chlorine in low SUVA water

    Natural organic matter (NOM) in surface water with low specific UV absorbance in Tianjin, China, was fractionated using XAD resins and ultra-filtration membranes into different groups based on hydrophobicity and molecular weight (MW), respectively. The effects of the pre-chlorination process on each fraction were also studied. The hydrophilic acid (HPIA) fraction was the main organic component of ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • The role of process water in pathogen reduction

    The USDA’s Pathogen Reduction/Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) rule in July of 1996 required all meat and poultry slaughter plants to adopt a system of process controls to prevent food safety hazards. It contained four components: standard operating procedures (SOPs) for sanitation, HACCP plans, generic E. coli testing and Salmonella performance standards. With the ...


    By Zentox Corporation

  • Chlorine Theory & Measurement

    Chlorine, dissolved in liquid is one of the most effective and economical semi-killers for the treatment of water to make it potable or safe to drink. Chlorine's powerful disinfectant qualities come from its ability to bond with and destroy the outer surfaces of bacteria and viruses. Drinking water chlorination is one of the most widely used methods to safeguard chinking water supplies. In ...


    By IC Controls Ltd.

  • Chlorine mystery solved

    Following the installation of in-pipe drinking water quality monitoring sondes, distribution engineers discovered an occasional significant disparity between the Intellisondes’ data and results from grab samples tested by a photometer tablet (DPD) method. For most of the time, there was close agreement between the two methods, but periodically, the photometer results varied wildly, whilst ...


    By Intellitect Water Ltd

  • Electrochemically activated water as an alternative to chlorine for decentralized disinfection

    Electrochemically activated (ECA) water is being extensively studied and considered as an alternative to chlorine for disinfection. Some researchers claim that ECA is by and large a chlorine solution, while others claim the presence of reactive oxygen species such as ozone and hydroxyl radicals in addition to chlorine. This study compares sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and ECA in terms of ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Biofilm control strategies in industrial processing waters

    Bacterial biofilms cause a number of serious problems for industrial fluid processing operations. Mechanical blockages, impedance of heat transfer processes and microbially induced corrosion result in billions of dollars of losses each year. In engineered systems, such as cooling water systems, food processing, and other industrial applications possible risk to public health and product spoilage ...

  • Chlorine requirement for biologically stable drinking water after nanofiltration

    There is considerable interest in minimizing the chlorine residual in Japan's tap water because of increasing consumer complaints about the chlorinous odor of drinking water. However, minimization of the chlorine residual requires stricter control of biodegradable organics in finished water to ensure biological stability during water distribution. In this context, we investigated the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Trihalomethane reduction in drinkable water by controlled chlorination and use of hydrogen peroxide

    The reduction of trihalomethane (THM) formation in the water treatment process by a controlled chlorination of ammonia and successive quenching with hydrogen peroxide has been studied. The optimum values of the process parameters have been determined with a calculation programme that makes use of the kinetic constants determined with the water to be treated. The obtained data have been verified ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

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