radiation dose Articles

  • Clinical significance of low-dose radiation therapy: radiation hormesis

    This study was designed to investigate the clinical significance of low-dose radiation therapy, radiation hormesis, and accuracy of therapeutic regimen. Radiation hormesis was performed in six patients (four patients with malignant diseases and two patients with benign diseases) in the experimental room where they could be exposed to a low level of direct gamma ray and inhale radon gas ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Threshold dose problems in radiation carcinogenesis: a review of non-tumour doses

    Non-tumour-inducing doses exist in dose-response data on experimental animals and humans, although a linear non-threshold model has been adopted for estimating cancer risk of ionising radiation at a low dose region for radiation protection purposes. Here, data on non- tumour dose, Dnt, the maximum dose at which a statistically significant increase of tumours is not observed, were reviewed in the ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Suicides and exposure to low doses of ionising radiation

    The suicide rates in southern India are very high (Joseph et al., 2003; Aaron et al., 2004), where there are areas of high natural radiation background (UNSCEAR, 2000). It was a stable tendency towards excess of suicides among the atomic bomb survivors exposed to low doses (0?90 mGy) (Kusumi et al., 1993). It was informed about the direct dependence between the suicide rate and the residency ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Experimental studies on the biological effects of low-dose-rate and low-dose radiation

    A lifespan study using a total of 4000 adult Specific Pathogen-Free (SPF) mice indicated that continuous gamma-ray exposures of both females and males for approximately 400 days at a dose rate of 20 mGy/day induced significant life shortening, mainly due to early neoplastic death, but no significant differences were found after exposure at a dose rate of 0.05 mGy/day as compared to nonexposed ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Epistemology on the attribution of radiation risks and effects to low radiation dose exposure situations

    The epistemology on the attribution of radiation risks and effects relates to the theories of knowledge applied for assigning harm to radiation exposure, especially with regard to methods, validity and scope. The attribution of radiation risk is associated with the concept of probability, including the plausibility of whether there is risk in prospective exposure situations. The attribution of ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Ionising Radiation

    Introduction The energy level of some types of radiation is high enough so that when they interact with matter they cause the formation of electrically charged particles or ion-pairs and break molecular bonds. These so-called ionising radiations are by their nature potentially harmful to life; at high doses they can be lethal and at lower doses can cause genetic damage. Ionising radiation occurs ...

  • Low-dose radiation risk and the linear no-threshold model

    The Linear No-Threshold (LNT) model has been traditionally used in the field of radiation safety. Public attention to and debate on this model increased after estimates that current Computed Tomography (CT) procedures in the USA will ultimately be responsible for up to 2% of cancers. However, there is evidence that in the mGy range, low doses not only cause a relatively low probability of ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • DNA repair after low doses of ionising radiation

    Exposure of mammalian cells to Ionising Radiation (IR) results in an integrated cellular response in which the activation of cell-cycle checkpoints is coordinated with DNA-repair pathways to optimise the removal of potentially cytotoxic or mutagenic DNA lesions. Radiobiological models have usually been based on observations of the cellular response to high doses of IR delivered acutely. This ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • A model for low dose effects of low-LET radiation delivered at high dose rates

    In vitro studies show that protective tumour-reducing effects occur for low dose rates (mGy per minute). To account for these phenomena, we have previously developed stochastic and deterministic multi-stage cancer models that include radiation-induced adaptations in DNA repair processes and radical scavenging. Here, these models are extended to account for the induction of radioprotective ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • A computational model for low-dose radiation induced cellular transformation by different radiation quantity

    In this study, a new mechanism model is constructed to fit the experimental data from different radiation quantities. The aim of the study was to construct a comprehensive model that contained all the essential biological mechanisms, such as direct irradiation effects or bystander effects, induced DNA damage, Double-Strand Break (DSB) error-free or error-prone repair and genomic instability, ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Recovery of low-dose hyper-radiosensitivity following a small priming dose depends on priming dose-rate

    T-47D human breast cancer cells were irradiated with 60Co γ-radiation and radiation response was measured by loss of ability of single-cells to form colonies. The influence of the dose-rate on the ability of priming irradiation to abolish Low-Dose Hyper-Radiosensitivity (LDHRS) was investigated. In agreement with previous reports, the LDHRS was abolished by an acute priming dose of 0.3 Gy given 6 ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Possible implications of radiation-induced "bystander effects" for radiation protection

    There has been a recent upsurge of interest in the contribution of indirect and delayed effects of low dose exposures to the ultimate response to ionising radiation. This is partly due to the availability of tools such as the microbeam and advanced cell culture but the ability to study endpoints such as gene or protein expression at low doses which were previously difficult to study is also ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Low-dose ionising radiation effects: effects of thoron inhalation

    Cellular DNA damage, tissue antioxidant levels, serum parameters, blood count and histopathological alterations were examined in tissues of mice exposed to thoron (average radiation dose0.065 μSv/hr). Alkaline cometassay results indicated that inhalation of thoron caused significant increase in the damage to DNA of lung tissue, while there was no significant damage to DNA in bone marrow cells. A ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Radiation-induced apoptosis in SCID mouse spleen after low dose or low dose-rate irradiation

    Concerning human health, studies of radioadaptive responses are quite important in radiation biology, because the radiation response may strongly depend on previous radiation exposure. Therefore, we have studied the radiation-induced Bax and apoptosis in mouse spleen after whole-body irradiation with low dose or low dose-rate. By use of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mouse defective ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Role of radiobiology for radiation epidemiology using for radiation protection

    The problem of the application of radiobiological data for radiation epidemiology and radiation protection is considered. The causality of epidemiological consequences quite often cannot be established without radiobiological basis (Bradford-Hill epidemiological criteria). A number of epidemiological uncertainties can be removed with the radiobiology (uncertainties in a dosimetry, effects of the ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Radiation dosage case study

    The Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) Team Dose Reconstruction Project assists the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health by reconstructing the radiation doses received by workers at various Department of Energy and Atomic Weapons Employer facilities. This work involves personal interviews with claimants, retrieval and validation of individual monitoring data, ...


    By Vose Software

  • Effects of non-lethal doses of ionising radiation on the instrumental behaviour of rats

    The dose-effect dependence of the instrumental behaviour of white rats after a single total γ-exposure (60Co) in the dosage range of 0.05 to 7.0 Gy was studied. Generalised results of seven years of our studies of post-radiation changes of operant behaviour in shuttle (active avoidance of shock ? negative reinforcement) and in Skinner (drinking reward ? positive reinforcement) boxes were ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • The special cell effects and somatic consequences of exposure to low-dose radiation

    The present work presents the peculiar form of a tissue post-irradiation reaction, characterised by a massive dose-independent transition of cell populations to the steady-state modification with increased cell damage and cell loss probability compared with the probability level of the same alterations in control. The X-ray irradiation at a dose of 0.5 Gy as well as at higher doses, 2.25 and 4.5 ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • The nanoparticles of BaSO4:Eu as detectors for high doses of different ionising radiations

    Nanoparticles of a BaSO4:Eu phosphor with a particle size of around 40 nm have been irradiated by 48 MeV 7Li3+, 75 MeV C6+ and 90 MeV O7+ ion beams at the fluence range of 1 ∼ l09–1 ∼ 1013 ions/cm2. The thermoluminescence (TL) glow curves of the irradiated samples were recorded and studied. The microcrystalline form of this sample is included in the study with the aim of reporting a comparative ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Immune cells in Chernobyl radiation workers exposed to low dose irradiation

    Immune response parameters were studied in Chernobyl radiation emergency workers exposed to low-dose irradiation during 1986–1989 and nuclear industry workers exposed under professional limits. Analysis was performed in irradiation dose limits of 250 and 100 mSv. The comparison group included participants of the clinical–epidemiological registry (n – 42,000) studied in the same time periods. The ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

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