radiation dose Articles

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Threshold dose problems in radiation carcinogenesis: a review of non-tumour doses

by Inderscience Publishers  (Oct. 4, 2004)

Non-tumour-inducing doses exist in dose-response data on experimental animals and humans, although a linear non-threshold model has been adopted for estimating cancer risk of ionising radiation at a low dose region for radiation protection purposes. Here, data on non- tumour dose, Dnt, the maximum dose at which a statistically significant increase ...

Low-dose radiation risk and the linear no-threshold model

by Inderscience Publishers  (Sep. 21, 2009)

The Linear No-Threshold (LNT) model has been traditionally used in the field of radiation safety. Public attention to and debate on this model increased after estimates that current Computed Tomography (CT) procedures in the USA will ultimately be responsible for up to 2% of cancers. However, there is evidence that in the mGy range, low doses not ...

Experimental studies on the biological effects of low-dose-rate and low-dose radiation

by Inderscience Publishers  (Jun. 19, 2008)

A lifespan study using a total of 4000 adult Specific Pathogen-Free (SPF) mice indicated that continuous gamma-ray exposures of both females and males for approximately 400 days at a dose rate of 20 mGy/day induced significant life shortening, mainly due to early neoplastic death, but no significant differences were found after exposure at a dose ...

DNA repair after low doses of ionising radiation

by Inderscience Publishers  (Jan. 10, 2007)

Exposure of mammalian cells to Ionising Radiation (IR) results in an integrated cellular response in which the activation of cell-cycle checkpoints is coordinated with DNA-repair pathways to optimise the removal of potentially cytotoxic or mutagenic DNA lesions. Radiobiological models have usually been based on observations of the cellular ...

Clinical significance of low-dose radiation therapy: radiation hormesis

by Inderscience Publishers  (Dec. 27, 2010)

This study was designed to investigate the clinical significance of low-dose radiation therapy, radiation hormesis, and accuracy of therapeutic regimen. Radiation hormesis was performed in six patients (four patients with malignant diseases and two patients with benign diseases) in the experimental room where they could be exposed to a low level ...

Epistemology on the attribution of radiation risks and effects to low radiation dose exposure situations

by Inderscience Publishers  (Apr. 2, 2012)

The epistemology on the attribution of radiation risks and effects relates to the theories of knowledge applied for assigning harm to radiation exposure, especially with regard to methods, validity and scope. The attribution of radiation risk is associated with the concept of probability, including the plausibility of whether there is risk in ...

Suicides and exposure to low doses of ionising radiation

by Inderscience Publishers  (Nov. 21, 2007)

The suicide rates in southern India are very high (Joseph et al., 2003; Aaron et al., 2004), where there are areas of high natural radiation background (UNSCEAR, 2000). It was a stable tendency towards excess of suicides among the atomic bomb survivors exposed to low doses (0?90 mGy) (Kusumi et al., 1993). It was informed about the direct ...

Ionising Radiation

by European Environment Agency (EEA)  (Jan. 1, 1996)

Introduction The energy level of some types of radiation is high enough so that when they interact with matter they cause the formation of electrically charged particles or ion-pairs and break molecular bonds. These so-called ionising radiations are by their nature potentially harmful to life; at high doses they can be lethal and at lower doses ...

The enhancement of Th1 immunity and the suppression of tumour growth by low-dose γ-radiation

by Inderscience Publishers  (Oct. 30, 2008)

To address if the modulation of immunity balance by low dose radiation is involved in the enhancement of the anti-tumour function, we examined the effect of 0.5 Gy γ-irradiation on the Th1/Th2 immunity balance in Ehrlich Solid Tumour (EST)-bearing mice. Repeated 0.5 Gy γ-irradiation significantly delayed the growth of tumours. The cytotoxic ...

Modelling of radiation-induced bystander effect at low dose and low LET

by Inderscience Publishers  (Jan. 10, 2007)

We presents a new biophysical model of radiation induced bystander effect applicable to low LET radiation and complementing a previously published model (Nikjoo & Khvostunov, IJRB, 79:43-52, 2003). A detailed analysis of experimental data has been performed for both the high and low LET radiations showing, contrary to the general belief, the ...

Application of Monte Carlo Analysis for Assessing Radiation Doses and Risks to Humans

by Oracle Crystal Ball GBU  (Nov. 2, 2002)

ABSTRACTThis BIOMASS Theme 2 report has been produced by the Remediation Working Group, which is concerned with the evaluation of the reliability of dose and risk assessment methodologies applied in support of decisions related to the cost-effectiveness of risk reduction measures within an environmental remediation programme. Scenarios have been ...

The assessment of the absorbed dose of radiation around a nuclear fuel manufacturing plant

by Inderscience Publishers  (Jun. 19, 2009)

The estimation of the absorbed dose of radiation by the public around a nuclear plant is a substantial issue for nuclear industries and serves as an essential factor in radiation protection. In this study, the absorbed dose of radiation by the individuals living around a nuclear fuel manufacturing plant was calculated. The Atomic Force Microscopy ...

The special cell effects and somatic consequences of exposure to low-dose radiation

by Inderscience Publishers  (Jun. 19, 2008)

The present work presents the peculiar form of a tissue post-irradiation reaction, characterised by a massive dose-independent transition of cell populations to the steady-state modification with increased cell damage and cell loss probability compared with the probability level of the same alterations in control. The X-ray irradiation at a dose ...

Low-dose ionising radiation effects: effects of thoron inhalation

by Inderscience Publishers  (Jul. 15, 2014)

Cellular DNA damage, tissue antioxidant levels, serum parameters, blood count and histopathological alterations were examined in tissues of mice exposed to thoron (average radiation dose0.065 μSv/hr). Alkaline cometassay results indicated that inhalation of thoron caused significant increase in the damage to DNA of lung tissue, while there was no ...

Assessment of radiation dose due to natural radionuclides in various cement samples

by Inderscience Publishers  (Dec. 21, 2011)

Samples of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC) from five companies were analysed for the measurement of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K using a HPGe detector based on high–resolution gamma spectrometry system. The measured ...

Effects of non-lethal doses of ionising radiation on the instrumental behaviour of rats

by Inderscience Publishers  (Nov. 21, 2007)

The dose-effect dependence of the instrumental behaviour of white rats after a single total γ-exposure (60Co) in the dosage range of 0.05 to 7.0 Gy was studied. Generalised results of seven years of our studies of post-radiation changes of operant behaviour in shuttle (active avoidance of shock ? negative reinforcement) and in Skinner (drinking ...

The nanoparticles of BaSO4:Eu as detectors for high doses of different ionising radiations

by Inderscience Publishers  (Feb. 8, 2010)

Nanoparticles of a BaSO4:Eu phosphor with a particle size of around 40 nm have been irradiated by 48 MeV 7Li3+, 75 MeV C6+ and 90 MeV O7+ ion beams at the fluence range of 1 ∼ l09–1 ∼ 1013 ions/cm2. The thermoluminescence (TL) glow curves of the irradiated samples were recorded and studied. The microcrystalline form of this sample is included in ...

Immune cells in Chernobyl radiation workers exposed to low dose irradiation

by Inderscience Publishers  (Feb. 10, 2004)

Immune response parameters were studied in Chernobyl radiation emergency workers exposed to low-dose irradiation during 1986–1989 and nuclear industry workers exposed under professional limits. Analysis was performed in irradiation dose limits of 250 and 100 mSv. The comparison group included participants of the clinical–epidemiological registry ...

Effects of high dose rate gamma radiation on survival and reproduction of Biomphalaria glabrata

by Inderscience Publishers  (Aug. 31, 2010)

Ionising radiations can cause mutagenesis and death depending on the dose. Based on this, the effects of 60Co gamma radiation at high dose rate on the survival and reproduction of Biomphalaria glabrata, one of the hosts of Schistosoma mansoni, were evaluated in this paper. The results demonstrated lethality in all irradiated groups, despite the ...

The lack of acute effect of low–to–moderate–dose ionising radiation on endothelial proteome

by Inderscience Publishers  (Aug. 1, 2013)

Epidemiological studies have shown that moderate and low radiation doses to the heart area may result in an increase in cardiovascular mortality. It has been suggested that cardiovascular endothelium could be one of the targets for the ionising radiation–induced heart injury. We have used human endothelial cells as an in vitro model to study ...

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