radiation dose Articles

  • Experimental studies on the biological effects of low-dose-rate and low-dose radiation

    A lifespan study using a total of 4000 adult Specific Pathogen-Free (SPF) mice indicated that continuous gamma-ray exposures of both females and males for approximately 400 days at a dose rate of 20 mGy/day induced significant life shortening, mainly due to early neoplastic death, but no significant differences were found after exposure at a dose rate of 0.05 mGy/day as compared to nonexposed ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Threshold dose problems in radiation carcinogenesis: a review of non-tumour doses

    Non-tumour-inducing doses exist in dose-response data on experimental animals and humans, although a linear non-threshold model has been adopted for estimating cancer risk of ionising radiation at a low dose region for radiation protection purposes. Here, data on non- tumour dose, Dnt, the maximum dose at which a statistically significant increase of tumours is not observed, were reviewed in the ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Clinical significance of low-dose radiation therapy: radiation hormesis

    This study was designed to investigate the clinical significance of low-dose radiation therapy, radiation hormesis, and accuracy of therapeutic regimen. Radiation hormesis was performed in six patients (four patients with malignant diseases and two patients with benign diseases) in the experimental room where they could be exposed to a low level of direct gamma ray and inhale radon gas ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Epistemology on the attribution of radiation risks and effects to low radiation dose exposure situations

    The epistemology on the attribution of radiation risks and effects relates to the theories of knowledge applied for assigning harm to radiation exposure, especially with regard to methods, validity and scope. The attribution of radiation risk is associated with the concept of probability, including the plausibility of whether there is risk in prospective exposure situations. The attribution of ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Suicides and exposure to low doses of ionising radiation

    The suicide rates in southern India are very high (Joseph et al., 2003; Aaron et al., 2004), where there are areas of high natural radiation background (UNSCEAR, 2000). It was a stable tendency towards excess of suicides among the atomic bomb survivors exposed to low doses (0?90 mGy) (Kusumi et al., 1993). It was informed about the direct dependence between the suicide rate and the residency ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Low-dose radiation risk and the linear no-threshold model

    The Linear No-Threshold (LNT) model has been traditionally used in the field of radiation safety. Public attention to and debate on this model increased after estimates that current Computed Tomography (CT) procedures in the USA will ultimately be responsible for up to 2% of cancers. However, there is evidence that in the mGy range, low doses not only cause a relatively low probability of ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • DNA repair after low doses of ionising radiation

    Exposure of mammalian cells to Ionising Radiation (IR) results in an integrated cellular response in which the activation of cell-cycle checkpoints is coordinated with DNA-repair pathways to optimise the removal of potentially cytotoxic or mutagenic DNA lesions. Radiobiological models have usually been based on observations of the cellular response to high doses of IR delivered acutely. This ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Ionising Radiation

    Introduction The energy level of some types of radiation is high enough so that when they interact with matter they cause the formation of electrically charged particles or ion-pairs and break molecular bonds. These so-called ionising radiations are by their nature potentially harmful to life; at high doses they can be lethal and at lower doses can cause genetic damage. Ionising radiation occurs ...

  • The lack of acute effect of low–to–moderate–dose ionising radiation on endothelial proteome

    Epidemiological studies have shown that moderate and low radiation doses to the heart area may result in an increase in cardiovascular mortality. It has been suggested that cardiovascular endothelium could be one of the targets for the ionising radiation–induced heart injury. We have used human endothelial cells as an in vitro model to study immediate effects of ionising radiation on endothelium. ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Calculation of radiation doses to human organs from consumption of marine fish

    In the present work, radiation doses are estimated from the analysis of 40K, 137Cs, 226Ra and 228Ra radionuclides in marine fish of the Bay of Bengal, accumulated in ten different human organs: red marrow, lung, thyroid, lower large intestine, upper large intestine, small intestine, breast, stomach, gonads and bone surface. The lowest equivalent dose is calculated in the thyroid as 2.7×10−3 µSv/y ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Radiation doses due to natural radioactivity in the Afra hot springs, Jordan

    This paper briefly reports some data from investigations carried out in the Afra hot springs, 160 km south of Amman, Jordan. These data emphasise the new findings of high-radiation dose equivalents, mainly to identify the potential and known impacts of exposure on public health in High Levels of Natural Radiation Areas (HLNRAs) of this region, and also to make recommendations for further studies. ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • A database of cancer induction by low-dose radiation in mammals: overview and initial observations

    The lifespan studies of animals exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation with a view to determining the relationships between radiation dose and cancer incidence have been identified and corresponding publications have been reviewed. The information on experimental conditions and cancer incidence data in exposed and control animals have been entered into a database intended for a global ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • External and internal radiation doses due to alpha activity in Tafila district, Jordan

    Tafila district of Jordan is unique in the presence of phosphate mines and hot spa which are the major sources of natural radioactivity. Natural radionuclides transfer from soil to vegetables grown in the region, and become a part of people's food. In this study, 16 soil and vegetable samples from Tafila district were collected from eight locations. External absorbed dose rates were calculated to ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • The enhancement of Th1 immunity and the suppression of tumour growth by low-dose γ-radiation

    To address if the modulation of immunity balance by low dose radiation is involved in the enhancement of the anti-tumour function, we examined the effect of 0.5 Gy γ-irradiation on the Th1/Th2 immunity balance in Ehrlich Solid Tumour (EST)-bearing mice. Repeated 0.5 Gy γ-irradiation significantly delayed the growth of tumours. The cytotoxic activities of Natural Killer (NK) cells and Cytotoxic T ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Modelling of radiation-induced bystander effect at low dose and low LET

    We presents a new biophysical model of radiation induced bystander effect applicable to low LET radiation and complementing a previously published model (Nikjoo & Khvostunov, IJRB, 79:43-52, 2003). A detailed analysis of experimental data has been performed for both the high and low LET radiations showing, contrary to the general belief, the existence of a dose response in the bystander effect at ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • The assessment of the absorbed dose of radiation around a nuclear fuel manufacturing plant

    The estimation of the absorbed dose of radiation by the public around a nuclear plant is a substantial issue for nuclear industries and serves as an essential factor in radiation protection. In this study, the absorbed dose of radiation by the individuals living around a nuclear fuel manufacturing plant was calculated. The Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) code, which is the generalised version of ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Application of Monte Carlo Analysis for Assessing Radiation Doses and Risks to Humans

    ABSTRACTThis BIOMASS Theme 2 report has been produced by the Remediation Working Group, which is concerned with the evaluation of the reliability of dose and risk assessment methodologies applied in support of decisions related to the cost-effectiveness of risk reduction measures within an environmental remediation programme. Scenarios have been developed concerning the site contaminated by an ...


    By Oracle Crystal Ball GBU

  • The special cell effects and somatic consequences of exposure to low-dose radiation

    The present work presents the peculiar form of a tissue post-irradiation reaction, characterised by a massive dose-independent transition of cell populations to the steady-state modification with increased cell damage and cell loss probability compared with the probability level of the same alterations in control. The X-ray irradiation at a dose of 0.5 Gy as well as at higher doses, 2.25 and 4.5 ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Low-dose ionising radiation effects: effects of thoron inhalation

    Cellular DNA damage, tissue antioxidant levels, serum parameters, blood count and histopathological alterations were examined in tissues of mice exposed to thoron (average radiation dose0.065 μSv/hr). Alkaline cometassay results indicated that inhalation of thoron caused significant increase in the damage to DNA of lung tissue, while there was no significant damage to DNA in bone marrow cells. A ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Assessment of radiation dose due to natural radionuclides in various cement samples

    Samples of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC) from five companies were analysed for the measurement of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K using a HPGe detector based on high–resolution gamma spectrometry system. The measured ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

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