reductive chlorination Articles

  • Interactions between biological and abiotic pathways in the reduction of chlorinated solvents

    While biologically mediated reductive dechlorination continues to be a significant focus of chlorinated solvent remediation, there has been an increased interest in abiotic reductive processes for the remediation of chlorinated solvents. In situ chemical reduction (ISCR) uses zero-valent iron (ZVI)–based technologies, such as nanoscale iron and bimetallic ZVI, as well as naturally occurring ...


  • Long-Term Sustainability of Reductive Dechlorination Reactions at Chlorinated Solvents Sites

    The sustainability of biodegradation reactions is of interest at Type 1 chlorinated solvent sites where monitored natural attenuation is being considered as a remedial alternative. Type 1 chlorinated solvent sites are sites where anthropogenic electron donors (such as landfill leachate or fermentable organics in the waste materials) exist with dissolved chlorinated solvents, resulting in ...


  • Trihalomethane reduction in drinkable water by controlled chlorination and use of hydrogen peroxide

    The reduction of trihalomethane (THM) formation in the water treatment process by a controlled chlorination of ammonia and successive quenching with hydrogen peroxide has been studied. The optimum values of the process parameters have been determined with a calculation programme that makes use of the kinetic constants determined with the water to be treated. The obtained data have been verified ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Reduction of chlorinous odor by the combination of oxidation and ion-exchange treatments

    To better control chlorinous odor in tap water, we assessed the performance of the combination of oxidation (ozonation or advanced oxidation processes, AOP) and ion-exchange treatment. In this process, the hydrophilic neutral fraction (a major dissolved organic matter (DOM) fraction) is converted to ionic species, and these ions and ammonium ion are effectively removed during ion-exchange ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Treatment Using HRC® Results in Long-Term Contaminant Reduction

    CASE SUMMARY Manufacturing Facility, New York Industrial operations at this manufacturing facility resulted in a subsurface contaminant plume containing high levels of chlorinated hydrocarbons. Within the source area, contaminant concentrations, consistent with the presence of dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL), reached 480 parts per million (ppm) ...


    By REGENESIS

  • pHcontrol for enhanced reductive bioremediation of chlorinated solvent source zones

    Abstract Enhanced reductive dehalogenation is an attr active treatment technology for in situ remediation of chlorinated solvent DNAPL source areas. Reductive dehalogenation is an acid-forming process with hydrochloric acid and also organic acids from fermentation of the electron donors typically building up in the source zone during remediation. This can lead to groundwater acidifica tion ...


    By RNAS Remediation Products

  • Results of the Application of Enhanced Reductive Dechlorination of Chlorinated Organics at Eight Sites (PDF)

    Enhanced reductive dechlorination is becoming more widely evaluated as a technology for the remediation of chlorinated organic compounds. The performance of this technology as reported in the literature, is often quite variable, making it difficult to evaluate the applicability of the technology. CH2M HILL has been involved in the application of this technology at several sites over the past few ...


    By REGENESIS

  • pH control for enhanced reductive bioremediation of chlorinated solvent source zones

    Enhanced reductive dehalogenation is an attractive treatment technology for in situ remediation of chlorinated solvent DNAPL source areas. Reductive dehalogenation is an acid-forming process with hydrochloric acid and also organic acids from fermentation of the electron donors typically building up in the source zone during remediation. This can lead to groundwater acidification thereby ...


    By True Blue Technologies, Inc.

  • Simultaneous reduction of by-products of chlorine dioxide and chlorine using Fe(II)–Al(III) coagulant mixture

    Ferrous iron has been considered very useful for removal of chlorite, a by-product of chlorine dioxide. However, a serious problem can occur associated with high residual iron concentrations in water after Fe(II) treatment, especially at weak acidic condition (pH 6), having a higher capacity of chlorite reduction. Simultaneous removal of chlorite, dissolved iron, and humic acids was achieved with ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • In Situ Bioremediation of Chlorinated Solvents

    ABSTRACT: In situ bioremediation is ongoing at a former manufacturing facility in Portland, Oregon.  Shallow groundwater at the site was impacted by chlorinated solvents, primarily trichloroethene and degradation products cis-1,2-dichloroethene and vinyl chloride.  In situ chemical oxidation treatment was completed in 2003 via the injection of sodium permanganate in source ...


    By EOS Remediation, LLC

  • Controlling the addition of Chlorine into a Process

    There are several methods for controlling the addition of chlorine into a process. These methods include flow proportional injection, ORP (oxidation reduction potential) or a residual chlorine analyzer. Each method measures a different process characteristic. Depending on the specific type of process being controlled, there generally is a best choice for controlling the injection of either ...


    By Walchem, Iwaki America Inc.

  • Sanitation Using Ozone & Chlorine

    For nearly 100 years, ozone has been used all over the world for water sanitation. It is nature’s strongest oxidizer and has a byproduct of pure oxygen. Chlorine, on the other hand, is a very effective, time-proven chemical, but is ineffective against hard-to-kill microorganisms such as cryptosporidium. It also has some unpleasant byproducts. Together, however, these two substances can ...


    By ClearWater Tech LLC

  • In situ treatment of a complex mix of chlorinated solvents: anaerobic reductive dehalogenation after chemical oxidation

    Treatment of chlorinated organic compounds has been ongoing at this New England facility (Site) for over 15 years. The extraction and above ground treatment system for groundwater containing tetrachloroethene (PCE), trichloroethene (TCE), 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA) and other chlorinated organic compounds has been running since September 1992. The full-scale remedy of in-situ chemical ...


    By RNAS Remediation Products

  • Design tool for estimation of buffer requirement for enhanced reductive dechlorination of chlorinated solvents in groundwater

    Abstract To assist in the design of enhanced reductive dechlorination systems for in situ remediation of chlorinated solvent source zones, the software BUCHLORAC (Buffering Of Dechlorination Acidity) was developed to pr edict the amount of buffer required to maintain the groundwater pH in a DNAPL treatment zone within the optimal range for dechlorinating bacteria. Reductive ...


    By RNAS Remediation Products

  • Design tool for estimation of buffer requirement for enhanced reductive dechlorination of chlorinated solvents in groundwater

    To assist in the design of enhanced reductive dechlorination systems for in situ remediation of chlorinated solvent source zones, the software BUCHLORAC (BUffering of deCHLORination ACidity) was developed to predict the amount of buffer required to maintain the groundwater pH in a DNAPL treatment zone within the optimal range for dechlorinating bacteria. Reductive dechlorination is an acidforming ...


    By True Blue Technologies, Inc.

  • The effect of chlorine and combined chlorine/UV treatment on coliphages in drinking water disinfection

    Chlorine disinfection is a globally used method to ensure the safety of drinking water. However, it has not always been successful against viruses and, therefore, it is important to find new methods to disinfect water. Seventeen different coliphages were isolated from the treated municipal wastewater. These coliphages and MS2 were treated with different dosages of chlorine in drinking water, ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Remediating groundwater contaminated with chlorinated solvents

    Chlorinated solvent contaminationof groundwater is a recognizedbarrier to both potablewater use and brownfield siteredevelopment in Canada.Several high-profile trichloroethene(TCE) contaminant issues such as thosein Cambridge, Ontario, and in Shannon,Québec, have increased public awarenessof this problem, and ...


  • Pulse-Chlorination®, the Best Available Technique in Macrofouling Mitigation Using Chlorine

    In 1998, KEMA developed a new chlorination method called Pulse-Chlorination®. It enables optimal antifouling treatment with a minimum use of chlorine. This technology is based on the principle that in general mussels and clams have a re-covery period after exposure to chlorination before opening fully and restarting filtration. The method takes advantage of this recovery time by using short ...


    By Sweco Nederland BV

  • Oxidation v. reduction: how to decide?

    Is in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) or in-situ chemical reduction (ISCR) the best option for your site? What factors should be considered to make such a decision? Many chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds (CHCs) can be degraded via oxidative or reductive processes. Accordingly, various ISCO technologies using oxidizing agents such as hydrogen peroxide (Fenton’s chemistry), permanganate, ozone or ...


  • Drinking water: the problem of chlorinous odours

    Chlorinous off-flavours in drinking water are a leading cause of complaints to Australian water utilities and other utilities worldwide. The occurrence and causes of chlorinous odours in drinking water were investigated with the use of an odour panel, trained using a modified flavour profile analysis technique. A new system for classifying water types according to the causes of chlorinous odours ...


    By IWA Publishing

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