refinery emissions directive Articles

  • Application of the EU Emissions Trading Directive

    Synthesising Member State reporting on the ETS The European Union (EU) emissions trading system (ETS) is one of the key climate policy instruments implemented in the EU to achieve its emission reductions objectives in a cost‑effective manner. The EU Emissions Trading Directive (EU, 2003, referred to hereafter as the 'EU ETS Directive'), and in particular Article 21 ...

  • Control VOC`s in Refinery Wastewater

    Oil and water do not mix, like many of life’s one-liners this statement is basically true but not the whole story. Many hydrocarbon liquids, particularly aromatics, have significant solubilities in water: Benzene 1800 PPMVToluene 470Ethyl Benzene 150Xylenes 150 Petroleum refineries do not like salts in their feedstock since these corrode and foul process equipment. The first refining step is ...

  • Direct Energy case study

    A wholly owned subsidiary of Koch Industries - one of the largest privately owned companies in the world - Flint Hills Resources (FHR) operates 3 oil refineries in the United States, a petrochemical processing facility in Illinois, and petroleum marketing and distribution interests in Canada. FHR first implemented the e3 Compliance Management system as an enterprise solution in 2001. In 2003 the ...


    By e3 Solutions Inc.

  • Oil refinery vapour gas case study

    1.0 Evaluation of Refinery Gases Various refinery gases are generated in the process of oil refining. These vary, depending upon the type of crude oil being distilled, such as Reduced Crude distillation, or Naphtha cracker. For the purposes of this case study the description and range of refinery gases are those gases produced from refining Crude Oil and Reduced Crude only. Crude ...

  • Analysis of national responses under Article 21 of the EU ETS Directive in 2015

    Synthesising Member State reporting on the application of the EU ETS Directive The European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) is one of the key climate policy instruments that has been implemented in the European Union (EU) to achieve its objectives of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in a cost-effective manner. The EU ETS covers certain activities that emit carbon dioxide ...

  • Case study - Reactor vent emission control

    OVERVIEW Many chemical and petroleum companies use batch reactors to make their products.  These reactors typically have vents which are opened and closed during emptying, filling, mixing, heating or cooling and other steps of the production process.  The gases coming from these vents must be controlled under most government regulations.  Generally speaking, the ...

  • New laser-based dust emission monitoring system

    Abstract A new generation of continuous particulate matter concentration monitoring instruments is presented, covering a measuring range of 0 to 1000 mg/m3. The laser-based scattered light instrument gives an improved stability as well as excellent resolution in the low range. This enables high concentration measurement as well as especially low emission monitoring down to 0.01 mg/m3 with a ...


    By Sigrist-Photometer AG

  • EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2016

    1 Guidebook Introduction 1.1 Introduction The joint EMEP (1)/EEA Air Pollutant Emission Inventory Guidebook (the 'Guidebook'), following the 'Guidelines for Reporting Emissions and Projections Data' under the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP) (2), provides concise guidance on how ...

  • Trends and projections in the EU ETS in 2016 — The EU Emissions Trading System in numbers

    About this report This 2016 report of the European Environment Agency (EEA) provides an analysis of past, present and future emissions trends under the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS), based on the latest data and information available from the European Commission (i.e. May 2016 data on verified emissions and compliance by operators under the EU ETS for the years up until 2015) and Member ...

  • Development and Implementation of an Alternative Emissions Monitoring Program for Carbon Monoxide Compliance for Fluidized Catalytic Cracking Unit CO Boilers

    This paper presents the results of an alternative emissions monitoring test program for the Fluidized Catalytic Cracking Unit (FCCU) CO boilers at major oil refinery. Alternative emissions monitoring systems can be used in lieu of other compliance monitoring techniques (e.g., periodic emissions testing, continuous emissions monitoring) to relate monitored operating conditions which might indicate ...


    By Mostardi Platt Environmental

  • Development and Implementation of an Alternative Emissions Monitoring Program for Carbon Monoxide Compliance for Fluidized Catalytic Cracking Unit CO Boilers

    This paper presents the results of an alternative emissions monitoring test program for the Fluidized Catalytic Cracking Unit (FCCU) CO boilers at major oil refinery. Alternative emissions monitoring systems can be used in lieu of other compliance monitoring techniques (e.g., periodic emissions testing, continuous emissions monitoring) to relate monitored operating conditions which might indicate ...


    By Mostardi Platt Environmental

  • The bottom line series: Carbon taxes

    Climate policy debates often feature discussions about the role of a carbon tax, either as an alternative or a supplement to a cap-and-trade program. This fact sheet describes the similarities and differences between the two policy approaches and answers other common questions about a tax on carbon. What is a carbon tax? A carbon tax is a fee imposed on fossil fuels, and other primary products ...

  • Limiting air pollution from transport: economic evaluation of policy options for the European Union

    Policies addressing air pollution from transport have in the past mainly focused on SO2, NOx and VOC through vehicle emission and fuel quality regulation. More recently however, CO2 emissions and particulates have come on the agenda because of global warming and the perception of the major role of particulates in health damage. This shift is also reflected in the last proposed ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Petroleum Refining Industry - Pollution Prevention Guidelines

    Introduction Pollution Prevention Guidelines to provide technical advice and guidance to staff and consultants involved in pollution-related projects. The guidelines represent state-of-the-art thinking on how to reduce pollution emissions from the production process. In many cases, the guidelines provide numerical targets for reducing pollution, as well as maximum ...


    By The World Bank

  • Innovative Ammonia Control case study

    Ammonia has increasingly become more of a regulatory concern. Ammonia emissions into the atmosphere have been linked to the formation of fine particulate matter, while ammonia emissions in wastewater are restricted because of the negative affect the chemical has on rivers, lake, and aquifers. Many sources of biofuels contain ammonia or can create ammonia during processing. The following case ...

  • Removal of Lead from Gasoline

    On 12th March 1997, the European Commission adopted a proposal from the Environment Commissioner Ritt Bjerregaard on a European Union strategy to combat acidification. The strategy will, by 2010, reduce significantly the extent of the areas in the European Union where the tolerance of sensitive ecosystems to acidity is exceeded. Main elements of the strategy include establishment of national ...


    By The World Bank

  • Air pollution impacts from carbon capture and storage (CCS)

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) consists of the capture of carbon dioxide (CO2) from power plants and/or CO2-intensive industries such as refineries, cement, iron and steel, its subsequent transport to a storage site, and finally its injection into a suitable underground geological formation for the purposes of permanent storage. It is considered to be one of the medium term 'bridging ...

  • Impact of selected policy measures on Europe`s air quality

    This report was prepared by the European Topic Centre for Air and Climate Change (ETC/ACC) of the European Environment Agency (EEA). The authors of the report were Jeroen Kuenen, Mtinkheni Gondwe, Tinus Pulles (TNO, the Netherlands), Frank de Leeuw (PBL, the Netherlands) and Justin Goodwin (S-ESC, United Kingdom). The EEA project manager was Martin Adams. Dr. Leonidas Ntziachristos (Aristotle ...

  • U.S. EPA`s Proposed Greenhouse Gas Standards for the Utility Industry - How Powerful Are They?

    A major event in the Climate Change arena occurred on March 27, 2012 when, for the first time, U.S. EPA proposed Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources (NSPS) for emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2).  The proposed standards were specific to new affected fossil fuel-fired electric utility ...


    By All4 Inc.

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