reinforced earth structures Articles

  • Laboratory Investigation of Earth Walls Simultaneously Reinforced by Strips and Random Reinforcement

    The performance of reinforced earth structures depends, among other factors, on the shear strength of the backfill material used in construction. The shear strength can be enhanced by the use of random reinforcement. This paper presents the result of laboratory investigations concerning the effects of several types of random reinforcement on soil strength and, in particular, on the performance of ...


    By ASTM International

  • Construction and operation costs of constructed wetlands treating wastewater

    Design data from nine constructed wetlands (CW) facilities of various capacities (population equivalent (PE)) are used to estimate construction and operation costs, and then to derive empirical equations relating the required facility land area and the construction cost to PE. In addition, comparisons between the costs of CW facilities based on various alternative construction materials, i.e., ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Lake Fort Smith dam & reservoir enlargement

    Client: City of Lake Fort Smith, Ark.  Completion Date: 2006  Services Provided Intake tower with microtunnels Road relocation Raw water lines Outlet works Pressure reducing station Dam embankment Principal spillway Auxiliary spillway ...


    By Burns & McDonnell

  • Commerce Park Giesen-Harsum-Hildesheim case study

    Building on an old dump The communities Giesen and Harsum along with the City of Hildesheim, Germany jointly planned the construction of a commerce park covering an area of 240ha. The section of the premises on which buildings were to be erected encompassed an area of 50ha. The only access road passed over a former garbage and building-trash landfill. Dumping in this area was ...


    By NAUE GmbH & Co.KG

  • Thematic Issue: Nanomaterials’ Functionality

    Nanomaterials: addressing the challenges, benefiting from the opportunities Some of the deepest challenges we will face in the coming decades derive from the opportunities offered by emerging technological advances. Many of these will improve our quality of life, and develop our economies, but all will be measured against the overarching principle that we do not make some error, and harm ...

  • Sea Level Rise: Risk and Resilience in Coastal Cities

    Introduction One of the most dire impacts of anthropogenic climate change is a rise in the global sea level caused by the melting of glaciers and land-based ice caps, as well as a smaller increase from expansion due to the higher temperature of the water itself.  Unlike some other predicted effects of climate change, this impact has already been observed for some time.  Indeed, ...


    By Climate Institute

  • Advanced WESP designs assure superior gas cleaning performance

    Nowadays, many industries are facing formidable environmental challenges and there is a growing need for effective, economical gas cleaning and air pollution control equipment. Michael Beltran of Beltran Technologies, Inc. reports on a renewed interest in high-efficiency wet electrostatic precipitators (WESPs) and discusses their importance for controlling sulphuric acid mists and other ...


    By Beltran Technologies, Inc.

  • Joint action on climate change: Facts and figures

    Ilan Kelman examines the history, overlaps and conflicts between climate change, development and disasters. By the end of 2015, three global policy processes will have set the stage for how the world responds to major challenges facing humanity in the years to come. A voluntary agreement to tackle disasters was reached in ...


    By SciDev.Net

  • ASTM Standards Help Meet Need for Clean Water

    The new ASTM Water Portal provides a single access point to standards and related information about ASTM International’s diverse committees working to protect and monitor this vital global resource. Clean and safe water is the underpinning of the quality of life for people around the world. Global economies depend on water, whether it’s to support the manufacturing of goods ...


    By ASTM International

  • Beliefs, Politics, and Environmental Policy

    Introduction Many of us who work on environmental issues have faced the challenge of conveying their importance to nonspecialists. Perhaps we have found ourselves defending the robustness of climate science to a contrarian uncle, or extolling the importance of biodiversity to a dubious aunt. Our relations and friends are often educated people, skilled in their own professions, who have ...


    By Oxford Journals

  • Environmental Justice: A Brief Historical Analysis

    Untitled Document ...


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