residual chlorine Articles

  • Chlorine

    Due to the complexity of chlorine chemistry, the activity and forms of chlorine is not well understood. Its reactions are not always 'predictable' and are somewhat unique. This memo is intended to provide some simple insight of the most common forms of chlorine that we at OsmonicsĀ® encounter. The most basic form of chlorine is Chlorine Gas (Cl2). This is usually the cheapest form of chlorination, ...

  • Impact of incomplete mixing in the prediction of chlorine residuals in municipal water distribution systems

    This paper investigates the mixing phenomena in pipe junctions in water distribution systems. Network simulation models frequently assume that mixing at pipe junctions is complete and instantaneous. In the present study, a series of experiments using tee and cross junctions with varying inflows and free chlorine concentrations were carried out in the Hydraulic Laboratory of the Institute of ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Accuracy, precision, usability, and cost of free chlorine residual testing methods

    Chlorine is the most widely used disinfectant worldwide, partially because residual protection is maintained after treatment. This residual is measured using colorimetric test kits varying in accuracy, precision, training required, and cost. Seven commercially available colorimeters, color wheel and test tube comparator kits, pool test kits, and test strips were evaluated for use in low-resource ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Effect of advanced water treatment on behaviour of residual chlorine and development of chlorine control method in distribution systems

    The behaviour of residual chlorine concentration in drinking water treated by the mid-chlorination or the advanced water treatment (AWT) was investigated. The AWT removes dissolved organic matter more than the mid-chlorination, thus the rate of residual chlorine reduction is decreased. The analysis of chlorine concentration data measured by automated continuous monitoring devices revealed that ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Dangers of Chlorine

    Most of us have grown up with the idea that whiter whites (and brighter colors) mean cleaner clothes. We continue to use chlorine products with abandon to whiten and to disinfect. We write on white paper and bathe in and drink chlorinated water. After all, who wants bacteria-infested water? In our society, chlorine is ubiquitous-and so are its side effects. In fact, the long-term residual effects ...

  • Impact of AOC and chlorine residual on regrowth of microbes in a model distribution system receiving UV-treated potable water

    The microbial ecology of distribution systems is complex and is influenced by a number of factors. This study assessed whether or not during drinking water treatments it is important to add a chemical disinfectant after ultraviolet (UV) disinfection in order to control the regrowth of microbes in distribution systems. Results showed that low UV doses did not impact assimilable organic carbon ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Modeling global emissions and residues of pesticides

    A major portion of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), in which carbon and chlorine are combined. During the last decade, a number of researches have been devoted to create emission inventories of OCPs at regional and global scales. The studies on residue inventories of OCPs, however, are sparse. In the absence of complete data and information on worldwide ...


    By Springer

  • Bidet toilet seats with warm-water tanks: residual chlorine, microbial community, and structural analyses

    Despite the reported health-related advantages of the use of warm water in bidets, there are health-related disadvantages associated with the use of these toilet seats, and the bacterial research is sparse. We conducted a survey on the hygienic conditions of 127 warm-water bidet toilet seats in restrooms on a university campus. The spray water from the toilet seats had less residual chlorine ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Spatial diversity of chlorine residual in a drinking water distribution system: application of an integrated fuzzy logic technique

    A reduction in the concentration of chlorine, which is used as a chemical disinfectant for water in drinking water distribution systems, can be considered to be an index of the progressive deterioration of water quality. In this work, attention is given to the spatial distribution of the residual chlorine in drinking water distribution systems. The criterion for grouping the water-quality ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Chlorine levels in pools

    In response to a SportExcel CPD seminar in April 2004 on pool water disinfection ISRM is reissuing this updated guidance. Also, recent press reports have highlighted the theoretical risks of high chlorine levels in swimming pools in relation to both pregnant women and levels of childhood asthma. This further reinforces the need for operators to provide the highest pool water standards possible. ...

  • Chlorinated hydrocarbons - Case Study

    Example: Pharmaceutical industry Similar tasks: Chemical industry The Pharmaceutical industry uses different processes to create chlorinated hydrocarbons. In a regenerative thermal oxidiser (RTO) the chlorinated organic contaminants are destroyed at high temperature. Chlorinated hydrocarbons - among others - are converted into hydrogen chloride which produces a ...

  • Controoling chlorine costs

    The most widespread disinfectant used in the treatment of drinking water is chlorine, which can be applied in a variety of ways. History has taught us that, in bacteriological terms, chlorinating water is a proven way of disinfecting drinking water. After all, more than 75 years have passed since chlorine was used to disinfect drinking water for the first time. Many years of experience have shown ...


  • Sanitation Using Ozone & Chlorine

    For nearly 100 years, ozone has been used all over the world for water sanitation. It is nature’s strongest oxidizer and has a byproduct of pure oxygen. Chlorine, on the other hand, is a very effective, time-proven chemical, but is ineffective against hard-to-kill microorganisms such as cryptosporidium. It also has some unpleasant byproducts. Together, however, these two substances can ...

  • Controlling the addition of Chlorine into a Process

    There are several methods for controlling the addition of chlorine into a process. These methods include flow proportional injection, ORP (oxidation reduction potential) or a residual chlorine analyzer. Each method measures a different process characteristic. Depending on the specific type of process being controlled, there generally is a best choice for controlling the injection of either ...


    By Walchem, Iwaki America Inc.

  • Characterisation of Incinerator Residues for Their Possible Re-Use

    MSW incineration produces a high quantity of residues (slags, fly ashes, sludges). Recycling suitability of residues is therefore an important issue requiring as a first step their physical and chemical characterisation (mass, granulometry distribution, merceology) and determination of their hazardousness (i.e. pollutant contents of heavy metals and chlorinated organic compounds). ...


  • Time to address the air pollution control residue problem

    The incineration of municipal solid waste is gaining increasing importance in the UK, especially as the burning of waste can be used to generate energy, providing a more sustainable solution to our waste problem by diverting it from landfill sites. An issue with incineration is that some of our waste contains hazardous chemicals such as chlorine and lead which are volatilised during the process. ...

  • Response of mussel Brachidontes variabilis to chlorination

    Untitled Document Brachidontes variabilis is a common fouling mussel species in cooling water systems of tropical coastal power stations. However, there are hardly any data available ...


    By Sweco Nederland BV

  • Residual maintenance and DBP reduction in a distribution system with long detention times

    The Cedar Knox Rural Water Project, in Northern Cedar and Knox counties, Nebraska, needed to reduce the formation of Total Trihalomethanes (TTHMs) while maintaining a chlorine residual at the farthest reaches of the distribution system. The water project serves four communities and 721 hookups with a total of 3,200 customers in Northeast Nebraska. The source for drinking water is the Lewis and ...


    By MIOX Corporation

  • Water residence time in a distribution system and its impact on disinfectant residuals and trihalomethanes

    The most critical water quality conditions are generally found at a water distribution network's extremities, given their high residence times. As chlorine injected at the water treatment plant (WTP) or at rechlorination sites has more time to react, residual chlorine concentrations at the extremities may not be enough to prevent microbial regrowth. This study focuses on the relationships between ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • DBPs in a chlorinated indoor swimming pool: occurrences and modeling

    Swimming pool water contains higher chlorine residual and is maintained at a higher temperature than tap water. It constitutes environments with high levels of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in water and air due to continuous disinfection and constant organic loading from the bathers. Exposure to DBPs is inevitable for any bather or trainer while such exposure can have cancer and non-cancer ...


    By IWA Publishing

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