reverse osmosis desalination Articles

  • Innovative seawater intake for reverse osmosis desalination plants

    Seawater desalination plants typically consist of four major unit operations: seawater intake, pretreatment, Reverse Osmosis (RO) stage, and posttreatment and brine discharge. The best way is to go through vertical beach wells, but the increase of the production capacity of the plants built in recent years makes open intake the only solution. These open ocean intakes draw seawater through the ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Energy cost for desalination evaporation versus reverse osmosis

    The selection of the appropriate desalination technology between evaporation and reverse osmosis is grounded on several factors, including investment cost, maintenance cost, degree of availability, heaviness of the duty, and the required purity of the desalinated water. The main factor is often the running cost of the plant, and specifically the cost of the consumed energy. This paper intends to ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • On the performance limitation of reverse osmosis water desalination systems

    The performance of Reverse Osmosis (RO) water desalination processes was investigated using a simulated brackish water plant based on spiral-wound membranes. A semi-rigorous mathematical model was employed in the simulation to calculate the water and salt fluxes at any point along the filtration channel. The effects of two key parameters, namely the transmembrane pressure and membrane surface ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Reverse Osmosis Element Design

    Introduction  TORAY REVERSE OSMOSIS MEMBRANE ELEMENTS are functional membrane elements with excellent quality and high performance developed with the polymer engineering expertise Toray has gained over the years. Toray Reverse Osmosis Membrane Elements are high rejection and high flux RO elements that have been meeting the high level requirements of our customers in many applications: ...


    By Toray Membrane Europe

  • Features of Reverse Osmosis (RO)

    1. Removal of dissolved salts  Reverse osmosis can stably and effectively remove dissolved salts, dissolved organic substances (trihalomethane, its precursors, agricultural chemicals, etc.), and micro fine particles (living germs, dead germs, and many other micro fine particles) from water. Thus it is ideal for a wide area of applications ranging from production of ultra pure water to ...


    By Toray Membrane Europe

  • Optimizing scale inhibition costs in reverse osmosis desalination plants

    Over the last few decades, advancements in technology and engineering design have allowed for the construction of reverse osmosis (RO) plants with increased production capacities that could operate at reasonable energy costs. Yet the portion of the operating cost related to consumable scale inhibition chemicals has not changed dramatically due to the disregard by the water treatment community for ...

  • Fouling and cleaning of seawater reverse osmosis membranes in Kalpakkam nuclear desalination plant

    A seawater reverse osmosis plant of 1800 m³/day capacity is part of the 6300 ³/day capacity nuclear desalination demonstration project at Kalpakkam. The plant was commissioned in October 2002 and is in continuous operation. This paper deals with types of foulants, membrane cleaning procedures and the improvement in the reverse osmosis system after cleaning. This paper also describes the analysis ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Robust water quality controller for a reverse osmosis desalination system

    This paper presents two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) robust loop-shaping control methodology to stabilize a reverse osmosis (RO) desalination system operating under significant uncertainties, external disturbances and measurement noises, and to reduce product water cost. This method has the advantages that no information about the plant uncertainty is required and it can deal with external ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Repowering and Modification of Grid Connected Reverse Osmosis Desalination Plants

    Currently, there is a strong demand for efficient seawater desalination plants, which can meet the tougher environment regulation and energy saving requirements. From this standpoint the present work was undertaken to include the proposed schemes for repowering and modification of Reverse Osmosis (RO) desalination plants. The model of Modified Desalination Plant (MDP) during sunny periods may be ...


  • Novel method of stabilizing water pretreatment for reverse osmosis desalination

    The preparation of functionalized filter media (FFM), its ability to release active antiscalant substances and its application for water treatment in water heating processes and as a pretreatment in reverse osmosis (RO) desalination were investigated in this study. FFM is a novel method of stabilizing water pretreatment designed to be free of the disadvantages of conventional methods of water ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Safety and reliability aspects of seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant of nuclear desalination demonstration project

    Desalination systems are mostly based on membrane (RO) and thermal (MSF and MED) processes. High-pressure operation and high level of corrosion are the major aspects of concern in a Seawater Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) Plant. Selection of the appropriate material for construction and the following of the proper design, fabrication and testing codes, and safe operational procedures ensure the safety of ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Reverse Osmosis Technology - Kuriverter Rc.

    Summary Applications using Reverse Osmosis membrane technologies are everywhere in our lives – from tiny under counter units polishing our drinking water through industrial units preparing water for processes or purifying effluents for reuse and massive seawater desalination plants producing thousands of m³ of drinking and irrigation water every day. The membranes used in this ...


    By Kurita

  • Forward osmosis desalination from laboratory to market

    A two-step forward osmosis (FO) desalination process combining both FO and reverse osmosis (RO) systems has been developed by the Centre for Osmosis Research and Applications at the University of Surrey and commercialised by Modern Water plc. In the FO + RO process seawater was used as feed water (FW) and a concentrated aqueous solution was used as a draw solution (DS). By taking ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Seawater desalination using forward osmosis process

    This study aims to evaluate the feasibility of the forward osmosis (FO) process for seawater desalination. The leakage of boron from the seawater into the draw solution was also studied. According to the WHO guideline, the maximum permissible limit of boron in drinking water is 2.4 ppm. Preliminary results of boron rejection by forward osmosis membrane were found to be 60–70%. ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Control of metal oxide fouling in reverse osmosis

    High levels of iron and manganese, along with large quantities of dissolved gases in the wells created concern for the viability of a conventional desalination design for the proposed City of Camarillo groundwater desalination facility. To identify viable pre-treatment process(es) for the control of metal oxide fouling in reverse osmosis, a 12-month pilot study was undertaken. The pilot study ...


    By Toray Chemical Korea

  • Control of metal oxide fouling in reverse osmosis

    High levels of iron and manganese, along with large quantities of dissolved gases in the wells created concern for the viability of a conventional desalination design for the proposed City of Camarillo groundwater desalination facility. To identify viable pre-treatment process(es) for the control of metal oxide fouling in reverse osmosis, a 12-month pilot study was undertaken. The pilot study ...


    By Toray Chemical Korea

  • Study on performance of ultrafiltration membrane-based pretreatment for application to seawater reverse osmosis desalination

    The objective of the work was to study at lab-scale the efficiency of hybrid process- coupling powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorption or FeCl3 coagulation and UF- for marine organic matter removal. Regenerated cellulose membrane with 30 kDa and actual seawater from Mediterranean Sea were used. The coagulant was FeCl3 and adsorbents were two PAC types, with different surface area and pore ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Selecting a pump for sea water reverse osmosis

    Reverse osmosis (RO) desalination has become a significant process used in the purification of water. Selecting the correct pump is a significant step in a well designed and properly operating pumping system. Although the pump is a relatively small part of the overall cost of an RO system, expenses resulting from downtime and inefficiency can quickly diminish the productivity of the RO system and ...


    By Cat Pumps

  • Optimisation of Osmosis. Jan Schallenberg, Kurita Europe GmbH, Germany, outlines the benefits of raw water pretreatment for reliable desalination by reverse osmosis - Case Study

    Desalination by reverse osmosis (RO) is a fast growing technology, which is gaining more and more market share in the field of desalination applications. RO plants are able to produce extremely pure water with minimal impurities, even if they are charged with highly contaminated feed water. Based on the fact that the RO membranes themselves are able to separate the smallest ions out of the raw ...


    By Kurita

  • Grafted cellulose acetate reverse osmosis membrane using 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid for water desalination

    Reverse osmosis (RO) membranes based on cellulose acetate (CA), were prepared using a phase inversion technique. To improve the hydrophilicity, salt rejection and water flux of these membranes, a novel grafting of 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid (AMPSA) was added on the top surface of the CA-RO membranes. The grafted CA-RO membranes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared ...


    By IWA Publishing

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