reverse osmosis membrane separation Articles

  • Principle of Reverse Osmosis (RO)

    Osmosis  Osmosis is a phenomenon where pure water flows from a dilute solution through a semi permeable membrane to a higher concentrated solution. Semi permeable means that the membrane will allow small molecules and ions to pass through it but acts as a barrier to larger molecules or dissolved substances. To illustrate this, assume that a semi permeable membrane is placed between two ...


    By Toray Membrane Europe

  • Features of Reverse Osmosis (RO)

    1. Removal of dissolved salts  Reverse osmosis can stably and effectively remove dissolved salts, dissolved organic substances (trihalomethane, its precursors, agricultural chemicals, etc.), and micro fine particles (living germs, dead germs, and many other micro fine particles) from water. Thus it is ideal for a wide area of applications ranging from production of ultra pure water to ...


    By Toray Membrane Europe

  • Preparation of thin-film composite polyamide reverse osmosis membranes

    Thin-Film Composite (TFC) polyamide membranes in spiral wound configuration are widely used in seawater desalting plants worldwide because of their superior solute-rejecting properties and attractive water permeation rates. TFC polyamide membranes are three layered membranes, prepared in two stages wherein conventional phase separation and interfacial polymerisation techniques are combined to ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Electronic Water Treatment Reduces Fouling In Reverse Osmosis

    Reverse Osmosis (RO) is used in processes requiring high-quality, purified water, such in semi-conductor processing or biochemical applications and can be used to treat boiler feed water, industrial wastewater or process water. A water purification technique, it reduces the quantity of dissolved solids in solution. RO uses waterline pressure together with energy consuming pressurizing pumps that ...

  • Treatment of hospital wastewater effluent by nanofiltration and reverse osmosis

    Considerable concern exists regarding the appearance and effects of trace and ultra trace pollutants in the aquatic environment. In this context, it is necessary to identify relevant hot spot wastewater – such as hospital wastewater – and to implement specific wastewater treatment solutions. Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology seems to be a suitable pre-treatment approach for the subsequent ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Improvement of Electrodeposition Paint Processes with Reverse Osmosis

    Abstract For over 15 years, membrane separation processes have been very effectively utilized as essential components of electrodeposition (ED) paint processes. ED is the accepted method of applying the undercoat paint layer to new automobiles and appliances. As cross-flow membrane and ED paint technologies mature, new applications combining the two have been developed. A major American ...


  • Potential of nanofiltration and low pressure reverse osmosis in the removal of phosphorus for aquaculture

    Aquaculture activities in developing countries have raised deep concern about nutrient pollution, especially excess phosphorus in wastewater, which leads to eutrophication. NF, NF90, NF450 and XLE membranes were studied to forecast the potential of nanofiltration and low pressure reverse osmosis in the removal of phosphorus from aquaculture wastewater. Cross-sectional morphology, water contact ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Reverse Osmosis Used to Treat ED Paint Ultrafiltration Permeate

    Abstract For a number of years membrane separation processes have been very effectively utilized as essential components of electrodeposition (ED) paint processes. As the two technologies grow and mature, applications for membranes related to ED paint continue to be developed. A case history is presented emphasizing the technological and economic considerations inherent to the practical ...


  • Reverse Osmosis: How Does It Figure Into a Dialysis Water System?

    Better than 95% of all dialysis centers use water purification equipment to purify water for dialysis. The centerpiece of these water purification systems has become reverse osmosis. In conjunction with sound pretreatment, RO has proven itself to be the safest, most reliable, and most economical method of purifying water for dialysis. Water plays an important, life-sustaining role for dialysis ...

  • Size fractionation characterisation of removed organics in reverse osmosis concentrates by ferric chloride

    Reverse osmosis membrane separation is the leading method for manufacturing potable purified water. It also produces a concentrate stream, namely reverse osmosis concentrates (ROC), with 10–20% of the water, and almost all other compounds. One method for further treating this stream is by coagulation with ferric chloride. This study evaluates removed organics in ROC treated with ferric chloride. ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Optimisation of Osmosis. Jan Schallenberg, Kurita Europe GmbH, Germany, outlines the benefits of raw water pretreatment for reliable desalination by reverse osmosis - Case Study

    Desalination by reverse osmosis (RO) is a fast growing technology, which is gaining more and more market share in the field of desalination applications. RO plants are able to produce extremely pure water with minimal impurities, even if they are charged with highly contaminated feed water. Based on the fact that the RO membranes themselves are able to separate the smallest ions out of the raw ...


    By Kurita

  • Membrane filtration

    Membrane is a thin layer of material that is capable of separating compounds as a function of physical and chemical properties when a driving force is applied across the membrane, which has been widely used in a wide range of applications in water industry [1]. Membrane can be classified by the range of compounds separated and the driving forces employed. For example, microfiltration (MF), ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Treatment of dyeing effluent from tannery using membrane separation processes

    Treatment of a dyeing bath of a tannery was carried out using a hybrid membrane-based separation scheme consisting of Nanofiltration (NF) followed by Reverse Osmosis (RO). Experiments were conducted using a cross-flow cell in continuous mode. The performance criteria of the separation scheme were evaluated in terms of dye concentration, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biological Oxygen Demand ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Membrane Free Volume Characterization

    Free Volume in Reverse Osmosis Membrane Reverse Osmosis (RO) is the leading technique for water desalination. RO membranes have been optimized over the past three decades. Typically, commerical RO membranes can produce drinking water from seawater. Water and salt transport through RO membrane follows the so-called Solution-Diffusion Model. Particularly, during separation, ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • RO Pretreatment Hydrocarbon Engineering - Optimisations of Osmosis

    Desalination by reverse osmosis (RO) is a fast growing technology, which is gaining more and more market share in the field of desalination applications. RO plants are able to produce extremely pure water with minimal impurities, even if they are charged with highly contaminated feed water. Based on the fact that the RO membranes themselves are able to separate the smallest ions out of the raw ...


    By Kurita

  • Membranes, the Finest Filtration

    Introduction The notion that salt could be removed from seawater without a phase change took hold of Dr. Sourirajan's imagination in the late 1950's. The actual invention of the reverse osmosis (RO) membrane took place in his laboratory at UCLA around 1960. (Thus Sourirajan could be called not only the 'Father of Reverse Osmosis,' but the initiator of all crossflow membrane technology.) The full ...


  • Quantification of transient flux decline during membrane separation of tanning effluent from tannery

    Cake filtration model is described to establish/quantify transient flux decline mechanism for membrane separation of tanning effluent collected from tannery. Two membrane operations, Nanofiltration (NF) followed by Reverse Osmosis (RO), are adopted to treat tanning effluent. The experiments are conducted in a continuous cross-flow mode of operation. Three-flow regimes, namely, laminar, laminar ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Membrane Bioreactors for RO Pretreatment

    ABSTRACTCurrently, treated municipal wastewater is typically discharged to the environment in most parts of the world. It is, however, a potential water resource from which high quality water for reuse can be produced. Reuse applications include both non-potable applications such as irrigation and production of industrial process water, and indirect potable reuse including aquifer recharge. For ...

  • Picking Their Membranes - Part I -

    Membrane use by water suppliers may not be new, but suppliers are considering membranes in new ways -- by number and variety of applications. Membranes can work on a wider range of resource waters, more efficiently and for less cost than before. Among membranes' attractions as substitutes for conventional water-treatment technologies, such as filtration, distillation and ion-exchange are: ...


  • Real-Time Membrane Fouling Monitoring

    The Port Hueneme Water Agency (PHWA) has been operating a municipal drinking water treatment plant designed to be a Brackish Water Reclamation Demonstration Facility. The facility consists of 3 separate side-by-side full scale systems or trains, each representing a major membrane separation process: nanofiltration (NF), reverse osmosis (RO) and electro dialysis reversal (EDR). Both the NF and RO ...


    By MASAR Technologies, Inc.

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