runoff Articles

  • Reuse turns stormwater runoff from a problem to an asset

    With so much concern about water scarcity around the world, it seems a no-brainer that rain is a good thing. But nothing’s perfect. Even something as beneficial as precipitation can have its downsides. One problem, of course, is flooding. Another problem you may not have thought of comes with stormwater runoff in urban settings. What’s the problem? In cities, buildings and pavement ...


    By Fluence Corporation

  • Runoff projections grasspave2 & gravelpave2/effective imperviousness

    Performing stormwater drainage design is one of the requirements of a site designer. Recent regulations created and enforced by the EPA require new developments to limit the amount of stormwater that flows off of a newly developed site, to be equivalent to or less, than the flow rate prior to development. The site designer must determine how much water is running off the original site, and ...


    By Invisible Structures, Inc.

  • Rainfall–runoff modelling using genetic programming

    This paper presents the application of genetic programming to the generation of models to assess the total runoff of a basin starting from the total rainfall in it and using data recorded in a sub-basin at the valley of Mexico (the Mixcoac sub-basin to the west of Mexico City). The modelling process is developed contrasting two types of models with different complexity degree: (1) a nonlinear ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Perceived agricultural runoff impact on drinking water

    Agricultural runoff into surface water is a problem in Australia, as it is in arguably all agriculturally active countries. While farm practices and resource management measures are employed to reduce downstream effects, they are often either technically insufficient or practically unsustainable. Therefore, consumers may still be exposed to agrichemicals whenever they turn on the tap. For rural ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • A conceptual grey rainfall-runoff model for simulation with uncertainty

    This paper presents an approach based on grey numbers to represent the total uncertainty of a conceptual rainfall-runoff model. Using this approach, once the grey numbers representing the model parameters have been properly defined, it is possible to obtain simulated discharges in the form of intervals (grey numbers) whose envelope defines a band which represents the total model uncertainty. The ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Assessing Risk Information Concerning Coastal Runoff

    Executive Summary In coastal urban watersheds, runoff from the landscape eventually reaches the ocean. If beaches along the ocean are used for recreation, three vital and interrelated questions arise. First, whether and to what extent does urban runoff degrade the quality of ocean water that is used for recreation? Second, to what extent docs this runoff-related ocean pollution pose a ...

  • Variations in the precipitation–runoff relationship of the Weihe River Basin

    The main goal of this study is to introduce the Archimedean copulas, which overcome the low accuracy and subjective nature of the traditional double mass curve method, to investigate the precipitation–runoff relationship (PRR) and detect change points in the Weihe River Basin (WRB). With the construction of a joint distribution between precipitation and runoff by the Archimedean copulas, a ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Model-based monitoring of stormwater runoff quality

    Monitoring of micropollutants (MP) in stormwater is essential to evaluate the impacts of stormwater on the receiving aquatic environment. The aim of this study was to investigate how different strategies for monitoring of stormwater quality (combining a model with field sampling) affect the information obtained about MP discharged from the monitored system. A dynamic stormwater quality model was ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Determination of Phenanthrene in Urban Runoff of Tehran, Capital of Iran

    ABSTRACT In many big cities, surface runoff is collected by separate collection system and is then directed to receiving water bodies. Since it washes out the materials from the surface of different lands, is known as the source of pollution. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are one class of carcinogenic contaminants that are commonly found in storm water runoff. In this study, ...

  • Column studies to determine mercury settling in road runoff

    A study was performed using a settling column to remove mercury (Hg) from road runoff. The emphasis was placed on the relationship between Hg removal and critical settling velocities, as well as the distribution of total suspended solids (TSS). The impact of rainfall characteristics and temperature on Hg removal was also discussed. Results indicated that Hg removal was significant within the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Precipitation and runoff variations in the Yellow River Basin of China

    Runoff in the Yellow River (YR) of China is steadily declining due to climate change and human activities. In this study, the basic trend and abrupt changes of precipitation at 63 meteorological stations and runoff as measured at six hydrological stations from 1956 to 2010 are analyzed. Results indicate that 38 stations exhibit negative precipitation trends. These stations are mainly located ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Analysis and projection of runoff variation in three Chinese rivers

    Runoff variability is investigated separately for the Wei, the Bei, and the Qing Rivers in China with a focus on their respective differences in monthly flow patterns and flow duration curves (FDCs) between years with and without annual runoff deficit. The number of deficit runoff years increased in the Wei River and changed slightly in the Bei and Qing Rivers, respectively. Monthly flow ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Monitoring Water Quality Runoff From a Coalmine

    Intelligent Monitoring Solutions from dataTaker CAS DataLoggers provided the intelligent datalogging solution for an open-cut coalmine managing a high salinity water runoff into local retaining dams. The water from these dams could only be released into the local river system when it was of sufficient quality to have no effect on the irrigation of the surrounding farming district. ...


    By CAS DATALOGGERS

  • Leaching of additives from construction materials to urban storm water runoff

    Urban water management requires further clarification about pollutants in storm water. Little is known about the release of organic additives used in construction materials and the impact of these compounds to storm water runoff. We investigated sources and pathways of additives used in construction materials, i.e., biocides in facades' render as well as root protection products in bitumen ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • An experimental approach to reduce the parametric dimensionality for rainfall–runoff models

    Sobol’ sensitivity analysis has been used successfully in the past to reduce the parametric dimensionality for hydrological models. However, the effects of its limitation, in that it assumes an independence of parameters, need to be investigated. This study proposes an experimental approach to assess the commonly used Sobol’ analysis for reducing the parameter dimensionality of hydrological ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Spatial prediction of the runoff coefficient in Southern Peninsular Italy for the index flood estimation

    The runoff coefficient φ is a crucial parameter for the estimation of the mean value of annual maximum flood peak discharges in ungauged watersheds, where no direct measures are available. If the rational method is applied as a rainfall–runoff transformation model, the runoff coefficient accounts for all the hydrological losses, and it can be conceptually defined as the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Comparing urban runoff quality of a felt roof and an asphalt road in Beijing

    Water pollution and water shortage are two of the most important environmental problems in Beijing, China. Water quality of rainfall from July to August 2011 and runoff from a felt roof and an asphalt road were analyzed chemically and further investigated because these are potential sources for augmenting city supplies. Results indicate that chemical oxygen demand (CODCr), total phosphorus (TP), ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Potential use of ionic species for identifying source land-uses of stormwater runoff

    Identifying critical land-uses or source areas is important to prioritize resources for cost-effective stormwater management. This study investigated the use of information on ionic composition as a fingerprint to identify the source land-use of stormwater runoff. We used 12 ionic species in stormwater runoff monitored for a total of 20 storm events at five sites with different land-use ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Modelling runoff on ceramic tile roofs using the kinematic wave equations

    Generally, roofs are the best candidates for rainwater harvesting. In this context, the correct evaluation of the quantity and quality of runoff from roofs is essential to effectively design rainwater harvesting systems. This study aims to evaluate the performance of a kinematic wave based numerical model in simulating runoff on sloping roofs, by comparing the numerical results with the ones ...


    By IWA Publishing

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