runoff sampling Articles

  • Zinc and copper in roof runoff

    The zinc and copper content of roof runoff could originate from different sources such as dry and wet deposition and the corrosion of the material. The zinc runoff rate from a galvanized surface depends on the corrosion products formed during the dry days, the rain intensity and roof slope, which determinates the contact time. In the present study the contact time dependence of zinc rate and the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Alkylphenols in atmospheric depositions and urban runoff

    A sampling campaign was conducted in order to determine alkylphenol (AP) concentrations in stormwater as well as potential AP sources in suburban environments. An analytical procedure was developed to quantify APs in bulk atmospheric deposition, building runoff, road runoff and stormwater. Both nonylphenols and octylphenols could be quantified in each sample. Median stormwater concentrations ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Measurement of cyanide in urban snowmelt and runoff

    Ferrocyanide compounds enter the environment as anti-caking additives to road salts. In illuminated aquatic environments, the salts dissociate and form toxic free cyanide, which can then be lost through volatilization. The most common techniques for analysis of cyanide in environmental samples measure total and free (generally weak-acid dissociable, WAD) cyanide species. Cyanide has been detected ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • To the problem of uncertainty in interpolation of annual runoff

    The long-term mean value of runoff is the basic descriptor of available water resources. This paper focuses on the accuracy that can be achieved when mapping this variable across space and along main rivers for a given stream gauging network. Three stochastic interpolation schemes for estimating average annual runoff across space are evaluated and compared. Two of the schemes firstly ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Model-based monitoring of stormwater runoff quality

    Monitoring of micropollutants (MP) in stormwater is essential to evaluate the impacts of stormwater on the receiving aquatic environment. The aim of this study was to investigate how different strategies for monitoring of stormwater quality (combining a model with field sampling) affect the information obtained about MP discharged from the monitored system. A dynamic stormwater quality model was ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Sensitivity of the performance of a conceptual rainfall–runoff model to the temporal sampling of calibration data

    The effect of the time step of calibration data on the performance of a hydrological model is examined through a numerical experiment where HYMOD, a rainfall–runoff model, is calibrated with data of varying temporal resolution. A simple scaling relationship between the parameters of the model and modelling time step is derived which enables information from daily hydrological records to ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Determination of Phenanthrene in Urban Runoff of Tehran, Capital of Iran

    ABSTRACT In many big cities, surface runoff is collected by separate collection system and is then directed to receiving water bodies. Since it washes out the materials from the surface of different lands, is known as the source of pollution. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are one class of carcinogenic contaminants that are commonly found in storm water runoff. In this study, ...

  • Cytotoxic and genotoxic activities of waters and sediments from highway and parking lot runoffs

    The genotoxicity of water and sediment samples from stormwater treatment systems and water from urban highway runoff was tested in the Salmonella/microsome assays with Salmonella typhimurium, micronucleus assay (Trad-MN) with plants and with human-derived liver cells (HepG2), or comet assay with HepG2. Cytotoxicity of water samples was studied using either reactive oxygen ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Micropollutants in stormwater runoff and combined sewer overflow in the Copenhagen area, Denmark

    Stormwater runoff contains a broad range of micropollutants. In Europe a number of these substances are regulated through the Water Framework Directive, which establishes Environmental Quality Standards (EQSs) for surface waters. Knowledge about discharge of these substances through stormwater runoff and combined sewer overflows (CSOs) is essential to ensure compliance with the EQSs. Results from ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Characterization and source identification of stormwater runoff in tropical urban catchments

    The characteristics of urban stormwater pollution in the tropics are still poorly understood. This issue is crucial to the tropical environment because its rainfall and runoff generation processes are so different from temperate regions. In this regard, a stormwater monitoring program was carried out at three urban catchments (e.g. residential, commercial and industrial) in the southern part of ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Sources of organic matter in first flush runoff from urban roadways

    This study aims to explore the influential sources of organic matter in first flush runoff from urban roadways by comparing organic carbon content and particle size distribution in road dust with those from discharge from vehicles during rainfall. Samples on first flush runoff and road dust were collected from urban roadways. In addition, vehicle drainage was assumed to flow from vehicles ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Evaluation of statistical distributions to analyze the pollution of Cd and Pb in urban runoff

    Heavy metal pollution in urban runoff causes severe environmental damage. Identification of these pollutants and their statistical analysis is necessary to provide management guidelines. In this study, 45 continuous probability distribution functions were selected to fit the Cd and Pb data in the runoff events of an urban area during October 2014–May 2015. The sampling was conducted from the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Characterization and first flush analysis in road and roof runoff in Shenyang, China

    As urbanization increases, urban runoff is an increasingly important component of total urban non-point source pollution. In this study, the properties of urban runoff were examined in Shenyang, in northeastern China. Runoff samples from a tiled roof, a concrete roof and a main road were analyzed for key pollutants (total suspended solids (TSS), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • The impact of atmospheric wet deposition on roof runoff quality in an urbanized area

    Understanding the sources of chemical components in roof runoff can help to prevent water quality problems in rooftop rainwater harvesting. To identify the contribution of wet deposition to the mass of components in roof runoff, the samples from air, rainwater, dust buildup and roof runoff were collected from an urban site in Shenzhen of China in 2011–2012. The results indicate that: (1) wet ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Impact of rainwater harvesting systems on nutrient and sediment concentrations in roof runoff

    Rainwater harvesting (RWH) systems have the unique ability to contribute to stormwater management goals via mitigation of runoff volumes and peak flow rates. Additionally, collecting and storing runoff via RWH systems can potentially provide water quality benefits due to physical and chemical processes that occur within the storage tank. This study quantified the water quality improvement ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Sources of organic matter in first flush runoff from urban roadways

    This study aims to explore the influential sources of organic matter in first flush runoff from urban roadways by comparing organic carbon content and particle size distribution in road dust with those from discharge from vehicles during rainfall. Samples on first flush runoff and road dust were collected from urban roadways. In addition, vehicle drainage was assumed to flow from vehicles ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Water Quality Benefits of Grass Swales in Managing Highway Runoff

    ABSTRACTGrass swales are a vegetated stormwater management technology that can remove surface runoff contamination through sedimentation, filtration by the grass blades, infiltration to the soil, and likely some biological processes. Two full-scale grass swales in the median of a four-lane highway were monitored during 18 storm events to characterize the overall performance of grass swales as a ...

  • Green Roof Media Selection for the Minimization of Pollutant Loadings in Roof Runoff

    ABSTRACTStormwater is a leading cause of water quality impairment in estuaries like the Chesapeake Bay. Green roofs are a potential best management practice for urban areas where land for traditional stormwater practices is unavailable. They are aesthetically pleasing, with excellent water retention ability. However, it is unknown how effective they are at treating stormwater. Typical media ...

  • Effects of rainfall data resolution on watershed-scale model performance in predicting runoff

    The hydrologic simulation program-FORTRAN (HSPF) model is widely used to develop management strategies for water resources, but its effectiveness is limited by predictive uncertainties associated with model input data. This study evaluated the effect of rainfall data resolution on the model performance when predicting runoff. We examined hourly, 3-hourly, 12-hourly, and 24-hourly temporal ...


    By IWA Publishing

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