sand filtration Articles

  • What Is Zero Liquid Discharge and How Does It Work?

    Not every industrial facility that produces wastewater will require zero liquid discharge (ZLD). It is usually looked to as a last resort because it can be a complex process that requires a high initial investment. If a facility is located on a site that has severe water scarcity issues and/or astronomical discharge fees, it might be ...


    By SAMCO Technologies, Inc.

  • Biological aspects of slow sand filtration: past, present and future

    For over 200 years, slow sand filtration (SSF) has been an effective means of treating water for the control of microbiological contaminants in both small and large community water supplies. However, such systems lost popularity to rapid sand filters mainly due to smaller land requirements and less sensitivity to water quality variations. SSF is still a particularly attractive process because its ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Homogeneous, heterogeneous and biological oxidation of iron(II) in rapid sand filtration

    Homogeneous, heterogeneous and biological oxidation may precipitate iron(II) as iron(III) hydroxides. In this paper we evaluate the conditions under which each of these processes is dominant in rapid sand filtration (RSF). It is demonstrated that in the presence of iron(III) hydroxide precipitates homogeneous oxidation is negligible compared with heterogeneous oxidation. As soon as iron oxidizing ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Treatment of domestic greywater by geotextile filter and intermittent sand filtration bioreactor

    Intermittent sand filtration (ISF) is an efficient system for treatment of greywater; however, the high quality of effluent and the simple set-up contrast with the high failure rate due to clogging of surface layers. The efficacy of several polypropylene non-woven geotextiles (apparent opening size from 0.10 to 0.18 mm) used as primary treatment filters to remove suspended particles from ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Virus removal vs. subsurface water velocity during slow sand filtration

    In an attempt to obtain a conservative estimate of virus removal during slow sand and river bank filtration, a somatic phage was isolated with slow decay and poor adsorption to coarse sand. We continuously fed a phage suspension to a 7-m infiltration path and measured the phage removal. In a second set of experiments, we fed the phage suspension to 1-m long columns run at different pore water ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Rapid sand filtration pretreatment for SWRO: microbial maturation dynamics and filtration efficiency of organic matter..Desalination 286 :120, 2012

    Rapid sand filtration (RSF) is used today as an effective pretreatment procedure to enhance water quality prior to reverse osmosis (RO) membranes in desalination plants. RSF in newly operated desalination facilities requires a maturation period of about three months before the feedwater may be filtered efficiently. To date the desalination industry RSF has regarded RSF mainly as a ...

  • Green Sand Filters, Chile

    INTRODUCTION In August 2013, Pure Aqua, Inc. manufactured and supplied Green Sand Filters to a major company in Chile to lower the manganese and iron level in well water. The system came complete with tank, top mounted valves, and high quality green sand media. The system was designed to produce 24 GPM. Since the initial startup, ...


    By Pure Aqua, Inc.

  • Drinking water treatment, AFM replaces sand in sand filters

    Drinking Water Treatment by AFM, 30% - 80 improvement in sand filter performance Cryptosporidium problem and THM's eliminated. All sand filter will suffer to some degree from bacterial fouling. The alginates excreted by the bacteria cause coagulation of the sand grains which in turn leads to wormhole channeling of water through the filter bed. The worm holes provide a conduit for the ...


    By Dryden Aqua Ltd

  • Contributions of homogeneous, heterogeneous and biological iron(II) oxidation in aeration and rapid sand filtration (RSF) in field sites

    In groundwater treatment, after aeration, iron(II) is precipitated in rapid sand filtration (RSF) by homogeneous, heterogeneous and biological oxidation. The contribution of homogeneous iron(II) oxidation may be calculated from equations and constants available in the literature. Heterogeneous iron(II) oxidation produces hydrous ferric oxides coated filter sand, resulting in a growing filter ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Impact of polymeric membrane filtration of oil sands process water on organic compounds quantification

    The interaction between organic fractions in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) and three polymeric membranes with varying hydrophilicity (nylon, polyvinylidene fluoride and polytetrafluoroethylene) at different pHs was studied to evaluate the impact of filtration on the quantification of acid-extractable fraction (AEF) and naphthenic acids (NAs). Four functional groups predominated in OSPW ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Low cost and sustainable surface water purification methods using Moringa seeds and scallop powder followed by bio-sand filtration

    A simple and inexpensive water purification method was developed using natural coagulant (Moringa seed powder) and antibacterial agents (scallop powder) followed by bio-sand filtration. In this study, surface water from different sources (e.g. pond, canal, lake and river) treated with combined Moringa seed powder, and scallop powder (MOSP) at a ratio of 2:1 for 10 minutes ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • A pilot-scale study of Cryptosporidium-sized microsphere removals from swimming pools via sand filtration

    Cryptosporidium species are the most common cause of gastrointestinal illness in treated recreational water venues. In order to protect public health during swimming, Cryptosporidium-sized microsphere removals by high-rate sand filtration with six coagulants were evaluated with a 5.5 m3 pilot-scale swimming pool. A sand filter without ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Removal of arsenic from contaminated groundwater with application of iron electrodissolution, aeration and sand filtration

    The results from a new water treatment system for arsenic removal are presented. The technology is based on the employment of an electrolytic iron dissolution and efficient aeration procedure prior to sand filtration. The treatment was introduced and investigated in a pilot scale plant and full scale waterworks. The pilot scale results showed the potential for efficient arsenic removal from ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Filtration and manganese removal

    Manganese removal through a filter bed is generally carried out and accepted by practitioners and researchers as occurring through catalytic oxidation at the surface of MnO2 coated media, although manganese passage through a coated media filter has been little investigated. To better understand the kinetics of Mn removal through a naturally coated filter, a pilot plant consisting of four filter ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Understanding Crossflow Filtration

    There's a lot of attention being given to water availability and purity, with good reason. Obtaining enough water is a struggle in some areas. In others, water is tainted with contaminants. It is therefore predictable that regulations and economics will force careful water treatment and stress water re-use. Fortunately, there are water treatment methods that can help you meet the water quality ...


  • Performance of modified design pond sand filters

    Two pond sand filters (PSFs) with modified design were constructed in Pathorghata Upazila of Barguna District located in southern Bangladesh. Performance assessment of the PSFs was done after commissioning in terms of quality of filtered water, ease of operation and maintenance, monthly check-up of production capacity/efficiency of the filters, users' participation and acceptability of the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • An antimicrobial polycationic sand filter for water disinfection

    A new sand filtration water disinfection technology is developed which relies on the antimicrobial properties of hydrophobic polycations (N-hexylated polyethylenimine) covalently attached to the sand's surface. The efficacy of the filter disinfection process was evaluated both with water spiked with E. coli and with real aqueous effluent from a wastewater treatment plant. For the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Comparison of sand and membrane filtration as non-chemical pre-treatment strategies for pesticide removal with nanofiltration/low pressure reverse osmosis membranes

    Pilot plant investigations of sand and membrane filtration (microfiltration (MF)/ultrafiltration (UF)/nanofiltration (NF)/low pressure reverse osmosis (LPRO)) have been performed to treat groundwater polluted with pesticides. The results show that simple treatment, with use of aeration and sand filtration or MF/UF membranes, does not remove pesticides. However, by reducing the content of key ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • MEDIA FILTRATION, MEMBRANES, OZONE, AND UV

    ABSTRACT For reclaimed water disinfection, pathogen reduction to acceptable public health risk levels is theprimary objective. A second emerging objective is the ability to destroy trace pollutants(endocrine disrupters (EDCs), pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs)) at a reasonably lowcost.The WateReuse Foundation’s Innovative Reclaimed Water Treatment Project ...

  • Industrial Media Filtration Systems, Philippines

    INTRODUCTION In July 2013, Pure Aqua successfully manufactured industrial media filtration systems to a major company in Philippines to remove particulates, chlorine, organics, and odor from well water. The industrial media filtration systems were selected from our MF-1000 Series with 48" and 42" diameter ...


    By Pure Aqua, Inc.

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