scaling Articles

  • Membrane biofouling mitigation through applying electric potential in the CF016 cell

    Membrane filtration is an effective way to remove pollutants and microorganisms from water and wastewater. However, membrane fouling lowers efficiency over time when considering rejection values and water flux.  Fouling is typically biological or particulate; fouling rate is a function of the membrane pore size relative to the size of the foulants and also the interactions between the ...


    By Sterlitech Corporation

  • What The AD Industry Can Learn From Solar Standardization

    Applying a proven project finance model to the anaerobic digestion industry is the best way to ensure projects get built and operate profitably over the long-term. THE U.S. anaerobic digestion (AD) market represents an attractive, multibillion dollar investment opportunity. However, structural industry obstacles must be overcome before the market can realize its full potential. As a ...


    By BioCycle Magazine

  • Mechanisms of scale deposition and scale removal in porous media

    Calcium sulfate scaling and scale removal have been studied experimentally and theoretically in a well-defined unconsolidated porous medium. The effects of injection rate, scale concentration and temperature on the rate of scale formation and the rate of its removal are investigated. The results of the experiments are used to develop mechanistic models for the prediction of the scaling process in ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Scale up factory

    Spire Corporation is a leading global solar company providing turnkey solar factories and equipment to manufacture photovoltaic modules and cells. With over 40 years and $100 million in R+D and PV, our years of experience and technical depth put us in a unique position to ensure the success of our customers. Applying this expertise across all product lines, Spire has a rich heritage of utilizing ...


    By Spire Solar

  • Large Scale Groundwater Modelling

    The hydrological model LISFLOOD is a spatially-distributed, partially physically-based rainfall-runoff model that has been devised to simulate the hydrological behaviour in large European catchments, with emphasis on predicting floods and droughts. In the model the groundwater component is represented by two interconnected linear reservoirs, with the outflow in some unit of time being ...


  • Large-scale application

    Type      HOFGAS®- Ready 2500 (2x) Commissioning      2002 Client      Cleanaway (Pitsea, GB) Situation The 2.8km2 big Pitsea landfill is located 50km east of London. It takes 2 to 3 years until the process of a landfill releases constantly gas. To compensate the initial unsteadiness, the 2 compact units ...


    By Hofstetter BV

  • Scale removal - Case Study

    Water Cooling Towers Operate at Better Efficiency and Lower Maintenance Costs with KDF Water Filter Media "As Seen in Water Quality Products" At TowerKlean™ LLC... KDF Water Filter Media Help with Scale, Algae, Chlorine and Heavy Metal Removal from Water Scale... it's a vicious never-ending problem that can kill the overall efficiency of water-cooling systems or ...


    By KDF Fluid Treatment, Inc.

  • ADMS–Urban: developments in modelling dispersion from the city scale to the local scale

    Many countries perform national air quality assessments using grid–based numerical air dispersion models, generally referred to as 'regional' models. Advantages of these models include the ability to use temporally and spatially varying meteorology and model chemical reactions over large temporal and spatial scales. These models usually perform reasonably well against rural and urban background ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Scaling-up investments in natural infrastructure

    Wetlands occur wherever water meets land. These deltas, marshes, rivers, lakes and watersheds are the water systems that link the natural world and human societies, and make it possible to clean, store and provide water to grow food and run businesses. As we prepare to participate in ...


    By Wetlands International

  • A solution for scale removal case study

    The Brookfields Restaurant chain consists of three large eateries located in and around Sacramento, Calif. Like many others, Brookfields Restaurants were equipped with water softeners to control lime scale on their hot water equipment, which consists of hot water heaters, dishwashers, steamers, coffeemakers and espresso machines. Even with the softeners, Brookfields Restaurants managers reported ...


    By HydroFLOW USA

  • Sustainability and the local scale: squaring the peg?

    This paper examines the causes of the failure by the Region of Waterloo (Ontario, Canada) to meet its objectives on sustainability. The analysis shows that in such macro matters as sustainability, scale does indeed matter, as do numerous other factors including the degree of trust in interrelations, perceptions and convictions, conflicting interests and competing agendas, the manner in which ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Fragmentation in small-scale confined blasting

    Design of sub-level blasting rounds and optimisation has become more important now when the sizes of the blasting rings get larger. Sufficient fragmentation is one of the key factors, and in confined blasting as in sub-level caving, this influences the mobilisation of the blasted ring. Model scale tests have been made to understand the mechanisms of rock breakage and therefore fragmentation under ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Controlling Scale Deposition and Industrial Fouling

    It costs US industry billions of dollars a year to control and remove the limescale that builds up in industrial equipment such a heat exchangers, evaporative coolers, boilers, chillers and other water fed equipment. Oil wells, for example, face significant scaling problems from the highly mineralized water that are extracted with the oil. Limescale not only increases downtime, maintenance ...

  • A comment on the independence of allocation, distribution and scale

    There has been considerable debate about the independence of the three policy goals of allocative efficiency, distributional equity, and ecological sustainability since Daly's (1992) paper on the subject (Prakash and Gupta, 1994; Daly, 1994; Stewen, 1998; Daly, 1999; Stewen, 1999). I would like to weigh in here, if I may, because I think it is a key policy issue requiring further discussion. ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Research on the synthesis and scale inhibition performance of a new terpolymer scale inhibitor

    A new terpolymer named β-CD-MA-SSS was produced using free-radical polymerization of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), maleic-anhydride (MA) and sodium-styrene-sulfonate (SSS) as monomers, with potassium persulfate (KPS) as initiator. Its performance as a scale inhibitor to prevent deposition of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) has been investigated. Experimental results demonstrated that β-CD-MA-SSS performed ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Scale-up of the MIEX® DOC Process for Full Scale Water Treatment Plants

    The MIEX® DOC Process is a new process developed by Orica Watercare, South Australian Water Corporation and the CSIRO for the removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from drinking water. Results from scale up of the process to a 170m3/day pilot plant have been reported previously (Nguyen, 1997). The process has now been successfully scaled up and trialed on a 1000m3/day pilot plant located at ...


    By IXOM Watercare

  • Commercial scale production of inorganic nanoparticles

    This review focuses on the current trend in the commercial scale production methods of inorganic nanoparticles. The limiting factors for the scalability of synthesis methods are explained and the relationship between commercial nanoparticle materials and production methods is discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on the fact that different synthesis techniques lead to different properties of ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Atomic-scale silicon device fabrication

    The driving force behind the microelectronics industry is the ability to pack ever more features onto a silicon chip, by continually miniaturising the individual components. However, after 2015 there is no known technological route to reduce device sizes below 10 nm. In this paper we demonstrate a complete fabrication strategy towards atomic-scale device fabrication in silicon using phosphorus as ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Preventing scale in recreational vehicles and motorhomes

    Over 80% of North America is affected by hard water, which is a major problem for the owners of RVs and Motorhomes.  Consequently, whatever State you are visiting in your RV, or if you have a motorhome permanently located in a hard water area, limescale will clog pipes, ruin appliances, destroy faucets and cloud glassware. The award-winning, patented, Scalewatcher water-conditioner, from ...

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