settlement system Articles

  • Automated Measurement of Slurry Surface Settlement

    An automated float method for measuring slurry surface settlement is described. The system consists of a Perspex float which is denser than water but lighter than the slurry into which it penetrates slightly and floats on the slurry/water interface. Settlement of this float is then automatically tracked using an LVDT. Comparison with direct cathetometer measurement demonstrates that except for ...


    By ASTM International

  • Climate change impacts on coastal urban settlements in Nigeria

    This study investigates the possible impact of climate change on the coastal cities of Lagos and Port Harcourt using the Model for the Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Induced Climate Change (MAGICC-SCENGEN) and geographical information system (GIS) interpolation techniques. The results confirm that sea level rise may occur with a consequence of submerging all coastal cities of the Niger delta area ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Cournot equilibria in two-settlement electricity markets with system contingencies

    We study Nash equilibrium in two-settlement competitive electricity markets with horizontal market power, flow congestion, demand uncertainties and probabilistic system contingencies. The equilibrium is formulated as a stochastic Equilibrium Problem with Equilibrium Constraints (EPEC) in which each firm solves a stochastic Mathematical Programme with Equilibrium Constraints (MPEC). We assume a ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Technical Focus: Turbidity as Control for Primary Settlement

    Turbidity is a very useful tool when regarding control within the primary settlement stage of water treatment. By utilising turbidity as a control variable during this stage of the process you  can enable a more rapid response to variations in load  and provide early warning  to operators of equipment malfunction before it’s too late; allowing for immediate action to be taken ...


    By Partech (Electronics) Ltd.

  • Performance assessment of deformation behaviour of landfill barriers at the onset of differential settlement

    The present study focuses on the performance of various impervious barriers of cover systems subjected to differential settlements. Various impervious barriers, namely Compacted Clay Liner (CCL), Geosynthetic Clay Liner (GCL) and Fibre Reinforced Clay Liner (FRCL) were subjected to differential settlements artificially in a centrifuge using hydraulic trap-door system. Distinct delay in water ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Settlement of Compacted Clay in a Cyclic Direct Simple Shear Device

    The results of 36 cyclic strain-controlled direct simple shear tests on a low-plasticity compacted clay are presented and analyzed. The tests were conducted in a Marshall Silver-type device, which utilizes the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI) type of short cylinder specimen confined in a wire-reinforced rubber membrane. Three degrees of compaction achieved by the modified compaction test ...


    By ASTM International

  • Impediments to the adoption of alternative sewerage in South African urban informal settlements

    In recent decades South Africa has witnessed a substantial growth in its urban population. This growth has been accompanied by the mushrooming of informal settlements (shantytowns) flanking more formal development. The lack of adequate urban drainage in many of these informal settlements has resulted in extremely polluted environments which add to the disease burden of the poor people who live ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • The MobiSan approach: informal settlements of Cape Town, South Africa

    Pook se Bos informal settlement and the Cape Town Water & Sanitation Services Department are partnering on an urban sanitation project with a Dutch Consortium consisting of Lettinga Associates Foundation (LeAF), Landustrie Sneek and Vitens-Evides International. The aim of the project is to improve the basic sanitation services provided in informal settlements through the implementation of the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Development and testing of a water-efficient laundry system in informal settlements of eThekwini municipality, South Africa

    In the informal settlements of eThekwini municipality, South Africa, laundry activities are typically undertaken at local standpipes and washbasins of community ablution blocks (CABs), and are characterised by high levels of water consumption and greywater production. Since greywater contains a high pollution load, including sodium tripolyphosphate, it poses a significant environmental and public ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • The genesis of the New Zealand Parliament's Treaty of Waitangi (Fisheries Claims) Settlement Act, 1992

    Economic expansion and globalisation are contributing to greater appropriation of marine ecosystems. Conflicts over access to fisheries resources nevertheless date back many centuries in most parts of the world, and - as with land resources - are closely tied to colonial histories, struggles for self-determination by indigenous peoples, and changing market conditions. This paper gives a detailed ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Constructed wetland as a low cost and sustainable solution for wastewater treatment adapted to rural settlements: the Chorfech wastewater treatment pilot plant

    The paper presents the detailed design and some preliminary results obtained from a study regarding a wastewater treatment pilot plant (WWTPP), serving as a multistage constructed wetland (CW) located at the rural settlement of ‘Chorfech 24’ (Tunisia). The WWTPP implemented at Chorfech 24 is mainly designed as a demonstration of sustainable water management solutions (low-cost wastewater ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Water-related factors and childhood diarrhoea in African informal settlements. A cross-sectional study in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)

    Improved access to water is a key factor in reducing diarrhoeal diseases, a leading cause of death among children in sub-Saharan Africa. In terms of water access, sub-Saharan African cities are some of the worst off in the world, with 20% of populations supplied by an unimproved water source. This situation is even worse in informal settlement areas. Using cross-sectional data on access ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • GCL serves as cost-effective, time saving alternative to compacted clay liner in mine drainage settlement pond

    PROJECT: CONSOL Bailey Mine Tailings Pond LOCATION: West Finley, Pennsylvania PRODUCTS: BENTOMAT® SDN BACKGROUND: Bailey Mine, located in Southwestern Pennsylvania and owned by parent company CONSOL Energy Inc., supplies bituminous coal used in the generation of electricity. At the site, coal laden sediment is pumped to ...


    By CETCO

  • Factors affecting economies of scale in combined sewer systems

    A generic model is introduced that represents the combined sewer infrastructure of a settlement quantitatively. A catchment area module first calculates the length and size distribution of the required sewer pipes on the basis of rain patterns, housing densities and area size. These results are fed into the sewer-cost module in order to estimate the combined sewer costs of the entire catchment ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Low cost sewerage systems in Tegucigalpa

    In 1995, statistics showed that about 150 peri-urban communities (279,000 persons) in Teguciagalpa lacked access to proper sanitation. The inconveniences of traditional latrines were unbearable for the community, thus they requested support from the Executive Unit for Settlement in Development (UEBD) for the construction of sewage system. Based on community demand for better sanitary ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Groundwater pump & treat and SIPEX skimmimg system

    GRS has supplied and installed a system for the abstraction of free-phase floating creosote contamination. The system comprises frequency controlled submersible pumps for precise hydraulic control and our motorised interface tracking system which, due to large local water table fluctuations, was modified to provide a product/water interface tracking range of 5m.Abstracted groundwater is pumped to ...


  • Venting your Sewage Treatment System

    The venting for the BIOROCK Sewage Treatment System is probably the key point of the system. The venting is specific to your site; again, why we emphasize the service of a certified recommended installer to install the BIOROCK Sewage Treatment Plant correctly. BIOROCK Venting Guidelines However, there are some simple tricks to follow in order that the continuous draft of air necessary to ...


    By BIOROCK S.à.r.l

  • Landfill site selection by using geographic information systems

    Abstract  One of the serious and growing potential problems in most large urban areas is the shortage of land for waste disposal. Although there are some efforts to reduce and recover the waste, disposal in landfills is still the most common method for waste destination. An inappropriate landfill site may have negative environmental, economic and ecological impacts. Therefore, it should be ...


  • Temporary treatment systems for large construction site in Stratford, East London

    Filter refurbishment program for 2000 site workers/staff Site Contractor: Natta Building Company Peak flow to treatment: 10.5l/s Designed consent standard: 20 mg/l BOD, 30 mg/l TSS & 10 mg/l NH4 Maximum incoming BOD: 380 mg/l Maximum incoming NH4: 50 mg/l Units supplied: 4 off 300pe GRP units 1 off 750pe steel unit 2 off HB50 Lamella settling tanks (primary and ...


    By WPL Ltd

  • Dependable Pretreatment for UF Membrane Water Treatment System

    Lake Forest is a small upper class community along the west shore of Lake Michigan about 35 miles north of downtown Chicago, IL. In 1890 a group of residents started the Lake Forest Water Company on the present site to provide water for the residents of the community. Prior to the spring of 2004, the Lake Forest Water Plant provided traditional water treatment. Coagulating chemicals were added to ...

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