silt density index Articles

  • Assessment of an ultrafiltration pre-treatment system for a seawater reverse osmosis plant

    The seawater reverse osmosis system requires extensive pre-treatment in order to ensure reliable performance. The conventional pre-treatment system involves dosing of chemicals, which requires frequent monitoring of raw water quality, and also involves adjusting the dosage. Besides being cumbersome, there is a lot of time lag involved in carrying out these measures. This calls for pre-treatment ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • MSC a biologically oriented approach

    The effective filtration of source water is a prerequisite for water treatment in numerous industrial and agricultural applications. Obviously the purpose of filtration is to remove particles or “solids” from the inflowing water stream. Usually filtration efficiency is measured by various standard tests such as turbidity (NTU), total suspended solids (TSS), silt density index (SDI) and particle ...

  • Optimization of the coagulation–flocculation process for the removal of natural organic matter fractions present in drinking water sources

    We used an experimental design to determine the best coagulation–flocculation mechanism and the optimal operating conditions for the maximum removal of the natural organic matter fractions (hydrophobic acid (HPOA) and hydrophilic neutral (HPIN)), which are the main factors responsible for irreversible membrane fouling and the generation of disinfection by-products (DBPs). Charge neutralization ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Experiences with the conventional pretreatment system in the seawater reverse osmosis plant at Kalpakkam

    A 1800 m³/day Seawater Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) plant was commissioned in October 2002 at Kalpakkam, India, as part of the Nuclear Desalination Demonstration Project (NDDP). The conventional pretreatment scheme was adopted consisting of a lamella clarifier, pressurised sand filter, activated carbon filter and cartridge filter. The dosing of pretreatment chemicals, ferrous sulphate and ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Death, Taxes . . . and RO Membrane Fouling

    Membrane fouling in reverse osmosis (RO) systems is as all pervasive and inevitable as the common cold. Avoidance is just as hit-or-miss: wash your hands, don't get your feet wet and hope for the best. The many unseen factors influencing whether a person becomes ill parallel the many variables that determine the onset and severity of fouling in a membrane system. Design, operation, and ...


  • The safe use of cationic flocculants with reverse osmosis membranes

    Abstract Flocculants are used in combination with coagulants to agglomerate suspended particles for removal by filtration. This technique is used extensively in all types of surface waters to reduce the silt density index (SDI) and minimise membrane fouling. Although organic cationic flocculants are particularly effective, their widespread use in membrane applications is limited ...

  • Power Plant Improves Operating Efficiency with Culligan Matrix Solutions

    Challenge A large chemical manufacture was challenged with boiler tube failures in its power plant, resulting in costly repairs and down time. The boiler tube failures were a result of the incoming water quality to the power plant. Until recently, the boiler make-up water was treated with a combination of carbon media filtration and softening. As a result less than 50% of condensate was ...


    By Culligan Matrix Solutions

  • Drinking Water Treatment Municipality of Sainte-Geneviève de Batiscan, Quebec

    A number of Quebec municipalities are confronted with feedwater problems of a bacteriological or physicochemical nature hardness, manganese, iron, dissolved solids) in the production of their drinking water. In many cases, these water sources do not meet government quality standards for drinking water. Membrane filtration preceded by the appropriate pretreatments can be a solution. Piloting ...


    By H2O Innovation

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