slow sand filter Articles

  • Influence of operating parameters on the performance of a household slow sand filter

    The biosand filter (BSF), an intermittently operated household slow sand filter, is one of the commonly used household water purification methods in the rural areas of developing countries. In this study, long-duration tests were conducted in the laboratory to investigate the influence of two important operating parameters, namely the pause period (idle time) and the charge volume on the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Biological aspects of slow sand filtration: past, present and future

    For over 200 years, slow sand filtration (SSF) has been an effective means of treating water for the control of microbiological contaminants in both small and large community water supplies. However, such systems lost popularity to rapid sand filters mainly due to smaller land requirements and less sensitivity to water quality variations. SSF is still a particularly attractive process because its ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Microbial community structure of a slow sand filter schmutzdecke: a phylogenetic snapshot based on rRNA sequence analysis

    Slow sand filters (SSF) are widely used to treat water for potable use. The process is dependent on the activities of complex microbial communities in the biofilm (schmutzdecke) layer. In this study, we generated a comprehensive view of three-domain microbiological complexity within a model SSF. DNA was analysed using a high-density microarray (PhyloChip) and rRNA library analysis. The Eukaryotic ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Effects of physical disturbances on media and performance of household-scale slow sand (BioSand) filters

    Point-of-use (POU) water treatment provides households in rural and remote communities with a means of obtaining greater control over their water quality and its effects on human health. One of the most prevalent POU interventions, the BioSand filter (BSF), is a household-scale, intermittently operated slow sand filter used by over 300,000 households. The sand and gravel media within BSFs can be ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Development of slow sponge sand filter (SpSF) as a post-treatment of UASB-DHS reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater

    In this study, conventional slow sand filter (SSF) and modified slow sponge sand filter (SpSF) were investigated for the post-treatment of up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)-down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor effluent. The seasonal variation did not show significant differences in removal efficiencies of both filters. However in summer, both filters were able to achieve high total ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Fluorescent microspheres as surrogates to assess oocyst removal efficacy from a modified slow sand biofiltration water treatment system

    There has been a resurgence of interest, technological advancement, and implementation of biologically active slow sand filtration technologies for small-scale potable water treatment in North America. Modelling the fate and transport of pathogenic microorganisms is vital to assess technological safety and for licensing, permitting and regulatory validation. The efficacy of a modified slow sand ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Biodegradation of the cyanobacterial hepatotoxin [Dha7] microcystin-LR within a biologically active sand filter

    Cyanobacterial blooms in Thailand waters contain microcystin (MC) hepatotoxins that are a risk to animal and human health. The biodegradation of MCs is a safe and natural method of removal from water. The [Dha7] MC-LR was purified by chromatography, identified by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and used for examining the biodegradation of MCs. Analysis of MC levels ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Determining the operational limits of the biosand filter

    Worldwide, access to clean drinking water is not available for more than 800 million people. The biosand filter (BSF), an intermittently operated slow sand filter, was developed to address this problem. The BSF is used in homes to improve water quality. Three main objectives were examined in this research: (1) investigate initial startup and recovery performance after cleaning BSF, (2) examine ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Impact of surface maintenance on BioSand filter performance and flow

    The BioSand filter (BSF) is a household scaled, intermittently operated, slow sand filter. The BSF requires maintenance to remove trapped sediments. This study evaluated the effects of maintenance on the filter's flow rate and performance. Four concrete BSFs received three styles of maintenance: surface agitation (SA), stirring method (SM), and sand removal (SR). Effluent water was collected ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Traditional and novel reservoir management techniques to enhance water quality for subsequent potable water treatment

    Thames Water treats approximately 2800Ml/d of water originating mainly from the lowland rivers Thames and Lee for supply to over 7.3 million customers, principally in the cities of London and Oxford. Traditionally, for London, water treatment has consisted of abstraction (pumping water from the rivers Thames and Lee), theoretical storage for 30–80 days in deep reservoirs, two stage filtration ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Aeration decreases THMs

    WITH HIGH LEVELS of trihalomethanes (THMs), the township of North Shore in Northern Ontario, Canada, explored treatment options at its Serpent River'Water Treatment Plant. The Serpent River treatment process includes slow-sand filtration. limestone contact tanks, and sodium hypochlorite disinfection. After filtration, sodium hypochlorite is injected into the treatment process before water enters ...

  • Roughing filtration as an effective pre-treatment system for high turbidity water

    Effective water treatment is the prime goal of every water treatment facility. Chakwal Water Treatment Plant in Pakistan has been treating high-turbidity surface water through crude coagulation, sedimentation and slow sand filtration since the early 1980s. The process has always been tedious in terms of high coagulant dosage, large volumes of sludge and short filter runs especially after wet ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Operation of an integrated algae pond system for the treatment of municipal sewage: a South African case study

    Integrated algae pond systems (IAPS) combine the use of anaerobic and aerobic bioprocesses to effect sewage treatment. In the present work, the performance of IAPS was evaluated to determine the efficiency of this technology for treatment of municipal sewage under South African conditions. Composite samples were analysed over an 8 month period before and after tertiary treatment. ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Advanced Enviro-Septic™ Systems Achieve Even Distribution without Pressure Dosing

    Abstract: Advanced Enviro-Septic™ Systems (AES) do not use pressure distribution. Pumps are used only if necessary to gain elevation to the treatment field. Pressure distribution has the potential to disrupt the settling of solids within the pipe. Testing has confirmed that AES achieves even distribution throughout the system naturally, through the development of a controlled bacterial ...

  • Advanced Filtration Media (AFM): Clean Water Market Analysis

    Executive Summary This report has been prepared by Entec to provide a market assessment of the application of AFM (Advanced Filtration Media) for potable water treatment. The work has been carried out on behalf of BREWEB, the Environmental Body of the Building Research Establishment and Dryden Aqua Limited, the developers of AFM. AFM is a high quality product that has been developed as ...

  • Water purification

    Water purification is a process of removing undesirable chemicals, materials, and biological contaminants from raw water. The goal is to produce water fit for a specific purpose. Most water is purified for human consumption (Drinking water) but water purification may also be designed for a variety of other purposes, ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • What is a wastewater treatment system and how does it work?

    For industrial companies producing wastewater as part of it’s process, some type of wastewater treatment system is usually necessary to ensure safety precautions and discharge regulations are met. The most appropriate wastewater treatment system will help the facility avoid harming the environment, human health, and a facility’s process or products (especially if the wastewater ...


    By SAMCO Technologies, Inc.

  • Indestructible Pumps for Clean Water

    Sulzer pumps are used in the production of drinking water in many cities around the world. The special qualities that these pumps possess can be seen at the Zurich Municipal Water Utility. There, the operators have to cope with rising land and energy prices and a challenging topography. A small water flea plays a major role in Zurich. It swims around in a container of drinking water with some of ...


    By Sulzer

  • The Method Found In A Sewage Sludge Carbonization Treatment Plant

    Have you ever passes a wastewater treatment plant and wondered exactly how the process works? Most localities have a minimum of one sewage sludge carbonization plant. These plants are the places where municipal sewage sludge is treated. This process is split into three stages. Each stage was created to further decompose and disintegrate wastewater sludge. ...


    By Beston Group

  • Glass blended rapidly with abrasion resistant rotary mixer

    While most reading this article may be unfamiliar with the Kopp Glass name, most are likely familiar with Kopp Glass products. From a humble beginning more than 80 years ago, as a manufacturer of red glass for railroad signals, Kopp now claims to be the world's leading producer of precision molded industrial quality technical glass.  The company is known worldwide among the ...

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