slow sand filtration Articles

  • Biological aspects of slow sand filtration: past, present and future

    For over 200 years, slow sand filtration (SSF) has been an effective means of treating water for the control of microbiological contaminants in both small and large community water supplies. However, such systems lost popularity to rapid sand filters mainly due to smaller land requirements and less sensitivity to water quality variations. SSF is still a particularly attractive process because its ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Virus removal vs. subsurface water velocity during slow sand filtration

    In an attempt to obtain a conservative estimate of virus removal during slow sand and river bank filtration, a somatic phage was isolated with slow decay and poor adsorption to coarse sand. We continuously fed a phage suspension to a 7-m infiltration path and measured the phage removal. In a second set of experiments, we fed the phage suspension to 1-m long columns run at different pore water ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Influence of operating parameters on the performance of a household slow sand filter

    The biosand filter (BSF), an intermittently operated household slow sand filter, is one of the commonly used household water purification methods in the rural areas of developing countries. In this study, long-duration tests were conducted in the laboratory to investigate the influence of two important operating parameters, namely the pause period (idle time) and the charge volume on the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Fluorescent microspheres as surrogates to assess oocyst removal efficacy from a modified slow sand biofiltration water treatment system

    There has been a resurgence of interest, technological advancement, and implementation of biologically active slow sand filtration technologies for small-scale potable water treatment in North America. Modelling the fate and transport of pathogenic microorganisms is vital to assess technological safety and for licensing, permitting and regulatory validation. The efficacy of a modified slow sand ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Seven Ways Your Facility Isn’t Meeting Effluent Regulations and How to Solve Them

    Whether you own, operate, or help manage a municipal or industrial facility that deals with wastewater, it’s important to understand how wastewater treatment can play a significant role in the overall health of your business, especially when it comes to meeting effluent regulations. This is an important part of the wastewater treatment process to consider, as ignoring it could earn your ...


    By SAMCO Technologies, Inc.

  • Houshold Water Treatment in Developing Countries: Ceramic Filtration

    Household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) interventions are proven to improve water quality and reduce diarrheal disease incidence in developing countries.  Five of these proven HWTS options – chlorination, solar disinfection, ceramic filtration, slow sand filtration, and flocculation/disinfection – are widely implemented in developing countries.  Organizations ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Roughing filtration as an effective pre-treatment system for high turbidity water

    Effective water treatment is the prime goal of every water treatment facility. Chakwal Water Treatment Plant in Pakistan has been treating high-turbidity surface water through crude coagulation, sedimentation and slow sand filtration since the early 1980s. The process has always been tedious in terms of high coagulant dosage, large volumes of sludge and short filter runs especially after wet ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Biodegradation of the cyanobacterial hepatotoxin [Dha7] microcystin-LR within a biologically active sand filter

    Cyanobacterial blooms in Thailand waters contain microcystin (MC) hepatotoxins that are a risk to animal and human health. The biodegradation of MCs is a safe and natural method of removal from water. The [Dha7] MC-LR was purified by chromatography, identified by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and used for examining the biodegradation of MCs. Analysis of MC levels ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Advanced Filtration Media (AFM): Clean Water Market Analysis

    Executive Summary This report has been prepared by Entec to provide a market assessment of the application of AFM (Advanced Filtration Media) for potable water treatment. The work has been carried out on behalf of BREWEB, the Environmental Body of the Building Research Establishment and Dryden Aqua Limited, the developers of AFM. AFM is a high quality product that has been developed as ...

  • Reduction of bacteriophage MS2 by filtration and irradiation determined by culture and quantitative real-time RT–PCR

    Molecular methods are increasingly applied for virus detection in environmental samples without rendering data on viral infectivity. Infectivity data are important for assessing public health risks from exposure to human pathogenic viruses in the environment. Here, treatment efficiencies of three (drinking) water treatment processes were estimated by quantification of the indicator virus ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Aeration decreases THMs

    WITH HIGH LEVELS of trihalomethanes (THMs), the township of North Shore in Northern Ontario, Canada, explored treatment options at its Serpent River'Water Treatment Plant. The Serpent River treatment process includes slow-sand filtration. limestone contact tanks, and sodium hypochlorite disinfection. After filtration, sodium hypochlorite is injected into the treatment process before water enters ...

  • Traditional and novel reservoir management techniques to enhance water quality for subsequent potable water treatment

    Thames Water treats approximately 2800Ml/d of water originating mainly from the lowland rivers Thames and Lee for supply to over 7.3 million customers, principally in the cities of London and Oxford. Traditionally, for London, water treatment has consisted of abstraction (pumping water from the rivers Thames and Lee), theoretical storage for 30–80 days in deep reservoirs, two stage filtration ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Dyed viruses and metal particles for advanced separation studies

    Single nanometer sized particles are poorly retained by conventional water treatment methods and are hardly detectable in water samples. The particles present a separate class of pollutants and their transport and fate cannot be studied by tracking bacteria, turbidity, free dyes or ions. Dyed bacteriophages and gold nanoparticles are two novel tools that facilitate the studies of virus ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Improving the biological stability of drinking water by ion exchange

    To guarantee a good water quality at the consumer’s tap, natural organic matter (NOM) should be (partly) removed during drinking water treatment. The objective of this research is to measure the effect of NOM removal by ion exchange on the biological stability of drinking water. Experiments were performed in two lanes of the pilot plant of Weesperkarspel in the Netherlands. The lanes consisted of ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Household Water Treatment Options in Developing Countries: Solar Disinfection (SODIS)

    Household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) interventions are proven to improve water quality and reduce diarrheal disease incidence in developing countries.  Five of these proven HWTS options – chlorination, solar disinfection, ceramic filtration, slow sand filtration, and flocculation/disinfection ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Operation of an integrated algae pond system for the treatment of municipal sewage: a South African case study

    Integrated algae pond systems (IAPS) combine the use of anaerobic and aerobic bioprocesses to effect sewage treatment. In the present work, the performance of IAPS was evaluated to determine the efficiency of this technology for treatment of municipal sewage under South African conditions. Composite samples were analysed over an 8 month period before and after tertiary treatment. ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Biofilm formation and permeate quality improvement in Gravity Driven Membrane ultrafiltration

    The effects of biofilm development on ultrafiltration membranes with regard to permeate stability and permeation rates were investigated using Gravity Driven Membrane (GDM) filtration. The first part of the study aimed at evaluating the influence of the biofilm on permeate flux quality and quantity with regard to Assimilable Organic Carbon (AOC) degradation. In addition, two types of biological ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Water purification

    Water purification is a process of removing undesirable chemicals, materials, and biological contaminants from raw water. The goal is to produce water fit for a specific purpose. Most water is purified for human consumption (Drinking water) but water purification may also be designed for a variety of other purposes, ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Removal and degradation of glyphosate in water treatment: a review

    Glyphosate is a broad spectrum, non-selective herbicide, widely used for the post-emergence control of annual and perennial weeds in a variety of applications. Although of low toxicity, its presence in drinking water is undesirable and can cause drinking water compliance failure in the EU if found at concentrations >0.1 μg L−1. Treatment methods such as ozonation and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • The Water Conditions in Ethiopia, Part One

    In August, I was able to visit northern Ethiopia to look at some of the drinking water issues. As you might guess, there are many, ranging from polluted water to almost no water at all. That made it interesting to discover the inhabitants of Adwa and Aksum rely on a reservoir. The reservoir water is treated first by aeration to oxidize iron, then with a flocculant which attracts dirt like a ...


    By Kinetico Incorporated

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