sludge pathogen Articles

  • Evaluation of Sludge Treatments for Pathogen Reduction

    The recycling to agricultural land is an important outlet for sewage sludge and other sludges but it must be controlled in order as to obtain agricultural benefit from the sludge whilst protecting human and animal health and the environment at large. Current practices in Europe are based on the requirements of the 1986 Directive on the use of sewage sludge in agriculture (86/278/EEC). Since that ...


  • Pathogen Inactivation by a Closed Alakaline System

    ABSTRACTThe efficiency of advanced alkaline disinfection in closed systems has been demonstrated to depend on the balance of ammonia concentration, pH, exposure time, temperature, total solids content, post-treatment storage time and mixing effectiveness. When the alkaline system is a closed one, an additional pathogen stressor is added: pressure. The effect of the alkaline dosing has been ...

  • Fate of Pathogens in Sludge Sand Drying Beds at Qateef, Khobar and Dammam: A Case Study

    Due to uncontrolled dump of dried municipal sludge and its use by farmers as soil conditioner and/or fertilizer, an extensive research was conducted in order to determine the microbiological characteristics of municipal sludges produced at three major cities, namely, Qateef, Dammam and Khobar in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Sludge samples were collected, from sand ...


    By University of Tehran

  • Response of Different Types of Biosolids to Simultaneous Dewatering and Pathogens Inactivation by Electrokinetic System

    Only electrokinetic system and its effect on the inactivation of pathogenic organisms in biosolids were investigated. Bench scale experiments were conducted in a series of electrokinetic (EK) reactors. Ten EK reactors were set up with different types of sewage sludge: primary, secondary (attached growth culture), secondary (activated sludge), and anaerobically digested sludge, coming from Auteuil ...

  • Monitoring and evaluation of removal of pathogens at municipal wastewater treatment plants

    The concentrations and removal of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and microbial indicators, including somatic coliphages and fecal coliforms were investigated through the wastewater treatment processes at three municipal wastewater treatment plants in Beijing, China. The experimental results showed that the concentrations of Cryptosporidium in untreated wastewater, ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Regrowth of bacterial pathogen indicators after advanced electro-osmotic dewatering of biosolids

    Applying an electrical field for 10 min to mechanically dewatered biosolids increased dryness to 35 to 45% and reduced Escherichia coli levels to/close to detection limits. Possible reasons for the regrowth of bacterial pathogens impacted by electro-osmotic dewatering are biosolids dryness, low pH and the generation of bacterial oxidants on the anode due to high temperatures. Testing for this ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Urban water reuse: microbial pathogens control by direct filtration and ultraviolet disinfection

    Physicochemical treatment efficiency for unrestricted urban water reuse was evaluated at a conventional activated-sludge wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Pilot plant set-up consisted of an alum coagulation step, granular media upflow flocculation and direct downflow dual-media filtration followed by ultraviolet disinfection (dose of 95 mJ cm−2). Optimum aluminum sulfate dosage of 10 mg ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Sludge Treatment and Disposal Technologies

    Most wastewater treatment processes produce a by-product that purifies wastewater before it is released into local waterways. This by-product is named as sludge. Typically in solid, semi-solid or liquid state, it is in fact an amalgamation of all the liquid wastes that are discharged by domestic houses, commercial properties, industry, and/or agriculture after aerobic biological treatment. ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Working Document on Sludge

    Untitled Document Introduction Sewage sludge originates from the process of treatment of waste water. Due to the physical-chemical processes involved in the ...

  • Pre-Treatment of Sludges Before Aerobic Digestion to Enhance Sludge Quality

    ABSTRACTBench scale experimentation was completed to assess the potential of using a short residence time pre-treatment reactor upstream of aerobic digestion to enhance the destruction of pathogens. The impact of aeration, temperature, hydraulic residence time, solids concentration, feeding frequency and mechanical shearing on the pre-treatment process was investigated. Subsequent testing ...

  • Municipal wastewater treatment plants as pathogen removal systems and as a contamination source of noroviruses and Enterococcus faecalis

    Municipal wastewater treatment plants play a crucial role in reducing the microbial and pathogen load of human wastes before the end-products are discharged to surface waters (final effluent) or land spread (biosolids). This study investigated the occurrence frequency of noroviruses, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium in influent, final effluent and biosolids ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Co-composting of sewage sludge and municipal solid waste

    Israel production of sewage sludge and MSW grows each year due to the increasing number of modern Wastewater plants that are using activated sludge process and the increasing population. Non-stabilized Sewage sludge is an environmental nuisance due to high level of pathogens, offensive odours, insect attraction and potential water sources pollution. The Haifa region itself, where the study took ...


    By ORBIT e.V.

  • Somatic coliphages as surrogates for enteroviruses in sludge hygienization treatments

    Conventional bacterial indicators present serious drawbacks giving information about viral pathogens persistence during sludge hygienization treatments. This calls for the search of alternative viral indicators. Somatic coliphages’ (SOMCPH) ability for acting as surrogates for enteroviruses was assessed in 47 sludge samples subjected to novel treatment processes. SOMCPH, infectious ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Ultrasonic sludge disintegration in the presence of iron (II) as catalyst

    Increasing environmental awareness worldwide and subsequent regulations have led to the application of improved and novel technologies in excess sludge treatment. Sludge is the by–product of wastewater treatment plants rich in organic carbons, pathogens and metals. To enhance the ultrasonic sludge disintegration, a new method by introducing (Fe (II)) as a catalyst in the process has been ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Safe Recycling of Municipal Sludge by Gamma Radiation

    Abstract Municipal sludge contains many toxic organic materials, large number of pathogenic microorganisms, heavy metals alongside many nutrients beneficial to plant and/or animal growth, but its use is limited due to these health hazards contaminants. The technology of irradiation-pasteurization has been shown to quickly, efficiently and reliably deal with potential health hazards ...


  • Factors Affecting Disinfection and Stabilization of Sewage Sludge

    ABSTRACTEffective disinfection and stabilization of sewage sludge prior to land application is essential to not only protect human health, but also to convince the public of its benefits and safety. A basic understanding of the key factors involved in producing a stable biosolid product is a necessary component to ensuring that effective disinfection and stabilization are achieved. Key stressors ...

  • Bioaugmentation In Sewer Network Reduces Sludge Production

    This article describes the effectiveness of bioaugmentation in the sewer network as a strategy to reduce sludge production. Sludge is an obvious by-product generated from the physical, chemical and biological treatment processes of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) as shown in Figure 1. Sludge management, which includes treatment, hauling, and disposal, is one of the biggest burdens facing ...

  • Virus elimination in activated sludge systems: from batch tests to mathematical modeling

    A virus tool based on Activated Sludge Model No. 3 for modeling virus elimination in activated sludge systems was developed and calibrated with the results from laboratory-scale batch tests and from measurements in a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The somatic coliphages were used as an indicator for human pathogenic enteric viruses. The extended model was used to simulate the virus ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Tetracycline Resistance Genes in Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment Plants

    The development and proliferation of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic, commensal, and environmental microorganisms is a major public health concern. The extent to which human activities contribute to the maintenance of environmental reservoirs of antibiotic resistance is poorly understood. In the current study, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were investigated as possible sources of ...

  • Advanced anaerobic processes to enhance waste activated sludge stabilization

    The requirement for enhanced stabilization processes to obtain a more stable, pathogen-free sludge for agricultural use is an increasing challenge to comply with in the waste hierarchy. With this in mind, the Routes European project (‘Novel processing routes for effective sewage sludge management’) is addressed to assess innovative solutions with the aim of maximizing sludge ...


    By IWA Publishing

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