snow water Articles

  • Snow Hydrology

    Snow hydrology (hydrology, from Greek word Hydrologia, “study of water”)is a scientific study in the field of hydrology which focuses on the composition, dispersion, and movement of snow and ice.Studies ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Air as Clean as the Driven Snow

    While California is the most populated state in the nation, it is also home to some of America’s most natural and pristine wilderness and recreation areas. One such venue is the Snow Summit Ski Resort in Big Bear Lake.  Situated just over two hours from Los Angeles, Snow Summit is a fullservice winter resort that opened in 1952 and operates an average of 142 days a year. ...

  • ´More Stations. More Data. Better Forecasts.´ – the NYS Mesonet

    “More Stations. More Data. Better Forecasts.” – that’s the slogan of New York State Mesonet. The weather observation network consists of a total of 125 weather stations all over the state of New York and Lufft was selected as one of the vendors to support them in capturing the data. All 125 of the weathers stations have the standard instrumentation suite. Of those 125, 17 ...

  • Screening of organic contaminants in urban snow

    Snowmelt is known to cause peak concentrations of pollutants, which may adversely affect receiving water quality. High concentrations of metals and suspended solids in snow have been reported, whereas studies on organic pollutants are rare. This study aims at investigating the occurrence of anthropogenic organic compounds in urban snow in Gothenburg (Sweden). The most frequently detected organic ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Frostbite And Hypothermia Hazards

    Hypothermia and frostbite can be two of the serious consequences of working outdoors in winter weather. Hypothermia is a dangerous lowering of the body’s temperature by exposure to cold or wet conditions. Actually, the air temperature doesn’t have to be particularly low to cause hypothermia – just getting wet and chilled can do the same thing. Hypothermia can be fatal. ...


    By SafetySmart

  • Spatial and temporal distribution of snow water content and response to air temperature in seasonal snow in the western Tianshan Mountains, China

    The snow water content was measured with a portable instrument (Snow Fork) in the Tianshan Station for Snow-cover and Avalanche, Chinese Academy of Sciences (TS) during the snow period in the winter of 2009–2010. The results indicated that the variation of snow water content increases exponentially over time. In the accumulation-stable period, the migration of liquid water is from the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • A model for the snow water equivalent derived from stratigraphy observations in northern Sweden

    A new parameterization of snow water equivalent (SWE) based on snow depth (HS) has been developed from observations made in northern Sweden. When applying previous SWE parameterization from the Alps on observations from northern Sweden, the SWE values are systematically 20% lower. The new SWE parameterization is derived from a snow layer density regression model using snow layer hardness and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Forest disturbance effects on snow and water yield in interior British Columbia

    Long-term studies at Mayson Lake (ML) and Upper Penticton Creek (UPC) in British Columbia's southern interior quantify snow-dominated hydrologic response to natural disturbances and logging. Following natural disturbance at ML, changes in snow accumulation related directly to mountain pine beetle attack were measurable by the fifth year following attack, when canopy transmittance had ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • The photoconversion of gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane under UV irradiation in water, snow and ice

    The photochemistry of organic pollutants has received increasing attention in ice and snow. In this work, the photoconversion of gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH) under UV irradiation was investigated in water, snow and ice. The photoconversion rate, products and mechanisms were inspected, and the effect of inorganic ions (NO2−, NO3−, ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • In situ snow water equivalent observations in the US Arctic

    This paper summarizes 12 years of snow water equivalent (SWE) observations collected in the data-sparse region of Arctic Alaska, United States. The in situ observations are distributed across a 200 × 300 km domain that includes the Kuparuk River watershed from the Brooks Range to the Beaufort Sea coast. Data collection methods and analyses were classified to distinguish between snow ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Less snow won’t end blizzard hazard

    There’s still a chance that some people who dream of a white Christmas will get their wish. While there may be less snow falling overall in a warming world, there will still be blizzards. Paul O’Gorman, an atmospheric scientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the US, reports in ...


    By Climate News Network

  • Evaluating the snow component of a flood forecasting model

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the snow routine of a semi-distributed conceptual water balance model calibrated to streamflow data alone. The model is used for operational flood forecasting in 57 catchments in Austria and southern Germany with elevations ranging 200–3,800 m a.s.l. We compared snow water equivalents (SWE) simulated by the hydrologic model with snow covered ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Arctic snow distribution patterns at the watershed scale

    Watershed-scale hydrologic models require good estimates of spatially distributed snow water equivalent (SWE) at winter's end. Snow on the ground in arctic environments is susceptible to significant wind redistribution, which results in heterogeneous snowpacks. The scarcity and quality of data collected by snow gauges provides a poor indicator of actual snowpack distribution. Snow ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Weather SDM: estimating snow density with high precision using snow depth and local climate

    Snow density is an important measure in hydrology used to convert snow depth to the snow water equivalent (SWE). A model developed by Sturm, Tara and Liston predicts the snow density by using snow depth, the snow age and a snow class defined by the location. In this work this model is extended to include location and seasonal weather-specific variables. The model is named Weather Snow Density ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Field evaluation of a new method for estimation of liquid water content and snow water equivalent of wet snowpacks with GPR

    Estimates of snow water equivalent (SWE) with ground-penetrating radar can be used to calibrate and validate measurements of SWE over large areas conducted from satellites and aircrafts. However, such radar estimates typically suffer from low accuracy in wet snowpacks due to a built-in assumption of dry snow. To remedy the problem, we suggest determining liquid water content from path-dependent ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Chloride transport and related processes at a municipal snow storage and disposal site

    The practice of used snow disposal has evolved from indiscriminate snow dumping to storage and meltwater management at engineered snow disposal sites. The Town of Richmond Hill, Ontario, Canada, constructed such a snow disposal site in 2003. Environment Canada and the Town of Richmond Hill formed a partnership to investigate the operation of the Richmond Hill Snow Storage Facility (RHSSF) with ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Evaluation of remotely sensed snow cover product in Central Asia

    Central Asian countries depend highly on water resources from snow and glacier melt, which has to be studied thoroughly to estimate water availability. However, the observation network in Central Asia is poor to carry out such studies in detail. Observations from space using remote sensing techniques might fill this observation gap, which needs to be validated. Therefore, this study evaluates ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • What You Don’t Know About Snow: The USDA’s SNOTEL Network is Playing a Critical Role in Protecting Water Resources in the Western United States

    There are many complex political, social, environmental, and scientific challenges surrounding water resources in the western United States. Water is scarce and does not occur when and where people need it the most. According to the US Geological Survey (USGS), about 80 percent of fresh water used in the western United States is appropriated for irrigation. Over the past 150 years, society has ...

  • Catchment-scale evaluation of pollution potential of urban snow at two residential catchments in southern Finland

    Despite the crucial role of snow in the hydrological cycle in cold climate conditions, monitoring studies of urban snow quality often lack discussions about the relevance of snow in the catchment-scale runoff management. In this study, measurements of snow quality were conducted at two residential catchments in Espoo, Finland, simultaneously with continuous runoff measurements. The results of ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Snow cover response to climate change in a high alpine and half-glacierized basin in Switzerland

    In alpine areas, the accumulation and melting of snow controls the hydrological regime. Even in watersheds where glacier melt dominates, the snow pack strongly influences the stream-flow dynamics. Prognostic simulations of the response of the snow pack to climate change were conducted in a high alpine and half-glacierized basin in central Switzerland. The snow cover and glacier were simulated ...


    By IWA Publishing

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