snow water equivalent Articles

  • In situ snow water equivalent observations in the US Arctic

    This paper summarizes 12 years of snow water equivalent (SWE) observations collected in the data-sparse region of Arctic Alaska, United States. The in situ observations are distributed across a 200 × 300 km domain that includes the Kuparuk River watershed from the Brooks Range to the Beaufort Sea coast. Data collection methods and analyses were classified to distinguish between snow ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • A model for the snow water equivalent derived from stratigraphy observations in northern Sweden

    A new parameterization of snow water equivalent (SWE) based on snow depth (HS) has been developed from observations made in northern Sweden. When applying previous SWE parameterization from the Alps on observations from northern Sweden, the SWE values are systematically 20% lower. The new SWE parameterization is derived from a snow layer density regression model using snow layer hardness and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Field evaluation of a new method for estimation of liquid water content and snow water equivalent of wet snowpacks with GPR

    Estimates of snow water equivalent (SWE) with ground-penetrating radar can be used to calibrate and validate measurements of SWE over large areas conducted from satellites and aircrafts. However, such radar estimates typically suffer from low accuracy in wet snowpacks due to a built-in assumption of dry snow. To remedy the problem, we suggest determining liquid water content from path-dependent ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Snow studies track changes in water availability

    New analysis of snowpack data by two research groups has changed conventional understanding of the mechanics of snowmelt: Both teams found warmer weather may change the amount of snow as well as how it melts. These studies are important in developing a better understanding of the amount of water available in snow (known as snow-water equivalent). This information can be used to calculate the ...


    By Fluence Corporation

  • Evaluating the snow component of a flood forecasting model

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the snow routine of a semi-distributed conceptual water balance model calibrated to streamflow data alone. The model is used for operational flood forecasting in 57 catchments in Austria and southern Germany with elevations ranging 200–3,800 m a.s.l. We compared snow water equivalents (SWE) simulated by the hydrologic model with snow covered ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Weather SDM: estimating snow density with high precision using snow depth and local climate

    Snow density is an important measure in hydrology used to convert snow depth to the snow water equivalent (SWE). A model developed by Sturm, Tara and Liston predicts the snow density by using snow depth, the snow age and a snow class defined by the location. In this work this model is extended to include location and seasonal weather-specific variables. The model is named Weather Snow Density ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Arctic snow distribution patterns at the watershed scale

    Watershed-scale hydrologic models require good estimates of spatially distributed snow water equivalent (SWE) at winter's end. Snow on the ground in arctic environments is susceptible to significant wind redistribution, which results in heterogeneous snowpacks. The scarcity and quality of data collected by snow gauges provides a poor indicator of actual snowpack distribution. Snow ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Snow cover response to climate change in a high alpine and half-glacierized basin in Switzerland

    In alpine areas, the accumulation and melting of snow controls the hydrological regime. Even in watersheds where glacier melt dominates, the snow pack strongly influences the stream-flow dynamics. Prognostic simulations of the response of the snow pack to climate change were conducted in a high alpine and half-glacierized basin in central Switzerland. The snow cover and glacier were simulated ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Catchment-scale evaluation of pollution potential of urban snow at two residential catchments in southern Finland

    Despite the crucial role of snow in the hydrological cycle in cold climate conditions, monitoring studies of urban snow quality often lack discussions about the relevance of snow in the catchment-scale runoff management. In this study, measurements of snow quality were conducted at two residential catchments in Espoo, Finland, simultaneously with continuous runoff measurements. The results of ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Improved Water Supply Forecasts Using Soil Moisture Data

    HydraProbe used to improve water supply forecast from 3 SNOTEL sites in Idaho over traditional antecedent conditions using the principle component forecast model Much of the water in the Western United States used for irrigation, municipal supplies and hydro-electric production originates as winter snow pack at higher elevations. Since the early 1900s, the correlation between stream flow and the ...

  • Analysis of water balance and runoff generation in high latitude agricultural fields during mild and cold winters

    High-latitude conditions in northern Europe are characterised by short growing seasons (May–August) and long dormant seasons. Alternating mild and freezing conditions lead to variable snow accumulation–melt cycles affecting runoff generation, and consequently the loss of nutrients and sediments from agricultural fields. We assessed water balance in two subsurface drained clayey agricultural ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • How Seismic Use Group Classification affects your Water Storage Tank

    When purchasing a bolted steel tank or a welded steel water storage tank, one of the key criteria determining the design parameters of the tank is the Seismic Use Group (SUG) classification. The term Seismic Use Group is essentially the same as the terms Occupancy Category and Risk Category used by the International Building Code (IBC) and the ...


    By Superior Tank Co., Inc.

  • The Potential of Solar-Powered Water Circulators to Help Solve Serious Water and Energy Problems in the U.S.

    With increasing human populations comes the corresponding increased need for improving water quality in lakes, wastewater ponds, potable water reservoirs, and other water storage facilities. Providing circulation within water reservoirs of all types has long been known to provide meaningful benefits, but the costs to achieve sufficient circulation through diffused aeration or mechanical mixers ...


    By Medora Corporation

  • Snowcover and melt characteristics of upland/lowland terrain: Polar Bear Pass, Bathurst Island, Nunavut, Canada

    The seasonal snowcover and snowmelt (2008–2010) of an extensive low-gradient wetland at Polar Bear Pass, Bathurst Island, Nunavut, Canada (75°40′ N, 98°30′ W) was examined. This wildlife sanctuary is characterized by two large lakes and numerous tundra ponds, and is bordered by rolling hills with incised hillslope stream valleys. In arctic environments snow ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • ´More Stations. More Data. Better Forecasts.´ – the NYS Mesonet

    “More Stations. More Data. Better Forecasts.” – that’s the slogan of New York State Mesonet. The weather observation network consists of a total of 125 weather stations all over the state of New York and Lufft was selected as one of the vendors to support them in capturing the data. All 125 of the weathers stations have the standard instrumentation suite. Of those 125, 17 ...

  • These fires are huge, hidden and harmful. What can we do?

    Smoldering peat gives off massive quantities of carbon dioxide and other pollutants, but the search for solutions is on. As forest fires devastated Fort McMurray, Alberta, last month, a different sort of fire may have started beneath the ground. Peat, a carbon-rich soil created from partially decomposed, waterlogged vegetation accumulated over several millennia and the stuff ...


    By Ensia

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