sodium measurement Articles

  • What are the main indicators of water quality?

    “Water is the driving force of all nature;” so said Leonardo da Vinci. The survival of our planet depends on the availability of water and the condition that it is in. It is therefore vital to make sure that it is able to provide a hospitable environment for those that live in it, and is free from harmful levels of substances for those that drink it. Not ...


    By Aquaread Limited

  • Modelling emission, concentration and deposition of sodium for Poland

    The aim of this paper was to calculate natural and anthropogenic emission of Na+ and to estimate, with the FRAME model, annual air concentration and deposition of Na+ for the domain covering Poland. Calculations of natural emissions included marine emission and wind blown dust from land. Anthropogenic emission was calculated for both ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Effect of sodium azide on the metabolic activity of cultured fetal cells

    Sodium azide is a highly toxic substance. However, the mechanism of its toxicity has not been fully established. In the present study, we attempted to investigate the toxicity of sodium azide in various cultured fetal cells, using changes in cellular respiration as an indicator of metabolic inhibition to elucidate tissue-specificity. The human fetal cell lines used in this study included ...


    By SAGE Publications

  • Green synthesis of ZnSe quantum dots using in-situ synthesised sodium selenide

    Single-step green synthesis of zinc blende ZnSe quantum dots (QDs) is performed using sodium selenide and zinc stearate. The present method is non-toxic and is considered reasonably green route where stearate ions released during the reaction act as surfactant. The size quantisation effect is revealed by blue shifted absorption bands with a band-gap energy of ~2.9 eV with respect to bulk ZnSe ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Chemical Tank volume measurement

    In this application, Pulsar equipment replaced other ultrasonic gear which was not coping with the multiple echoes coming from a dome top tank. Level Star 110 non-contacting ultrasonic level measurement was supplied to a major chemical manufacturer, resolving a problem they had in the effective gauging of Sodium hydroxide. The Pulsar equipment replaced ultrasonic equipment previously supplied by ...

  • Chlorine Theory & Measurement

    Chlorine, dissolved in liquid is one of the most effective and economical semi-killers for the treatment of water to make it potable or safe to drink. Chlorine's powerful disinfectant qualities come from its ability to bond with and destroy the outer surfaces of bacteria and viruses. Drinking water chlorination is one of the most widely used methods to safeguard chinking water supplies. In ...


    By IC Controls Ltd.

  • Self-welding susceptibility of 316LN and alloy D9 stainless steels in high-temperature flowing sodium

    The self-welding susceptibility of 316LN Stainless Steel (SS) and alloy D9 (15Cr-15Ni-2Mo titanium-modified) SS in 20% cold-worked conditions was evaluated in flowing sodium at 823 K under a maximum contact stress of 12 MPa and for durations of 3, 6 and 9 months. The specimens used were hollow, cylindrical and stacked one above the other under compression using disc springs. The breakaway shear ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Conductivity Theory and Measurement

    Electrical conductivity is a measure of the ability of a solution to cany* a current. Current flow in liquids differs from mat in metal conductors in that electrons cannot flow freely, but must be carried by ions. Ions are formed when a solid such as salt is dissolved in a liquid to form electrical components having opposite electrical charges. For example, sodium chloride separates to form Na" ...


    By IC Controls Ltd.

  • Measurement of TOC in High-Salt Sample

    The quantity of organic matter in seawater is important in the research and monitoring of marine pollution as an indicator of organic pollution. The salt content in seawater is typically about 3.5 %, but using the Shimadzu total organic carbon analyzer, it is possible to measure the TOC directly without dilution or other pretreatment procedures. Here, we introduce an example of measurement of ...

  • Daphne Utilities, Alabama, Enjoys More Than Seven Years of On-Site Sodium Hypochlorite Production from Process Solutions, Inc. Microclor System

    Located along the eastern shore of Mobile Bay, scenic Daphne, Alabama boasts one of the most proactive and progressive utilities in the country. Daphne Utilities which operates the gas, water and wastewater systems for the area’s roughly 20,000 inhabitants has been winning awards for excellence since its founding in 1953. In late 2007, the utility embarked on the design of a new water plant ...

  • Emulsion-Breaking Techniques for Accurate Oil in Water Measurements

    A White Paper discusses emulsion-breaking techniques for ensuring accurate oil in water measurements. Certain water samples, such as those containing detergent, may form an emulsion when oil in water extraction into a solvent is done. In order to ensure an accurate measurement, the emulsion must be broken. Six techniques are described that can be used for reducing an emulsion ...


    By Spectro Scientific

  • Filtration System Expenditure Results in Payback Measured in Days

    It is very likely that every light bulb in your home or office came from one glass plant located in central Kentucky.  Nearly 10% of all the glass bulbs used to make incandescent light bulbs in the world are manufactured at this one location.  In addition to these bulbs they make borosilicate hard glass for spotlight lenses and reflectors, and lead glass parts used in the manufacture of ...


    By Orival, Inc.

  • How can I measure Salt in food?

    Sodium is a mineral required by the body for normal functions, but excessive intake can cause high blood pressure and hypertension. This has lead governments and regulatory bodies to focus on monitoring the levels of salt in foods in order to reduce the risk of these health affects. Canned foods are of particular concern as these often contain relatively high levels of salt. ...


    By Camlab Limited

  • Applications guide to mass flow measurement in the primary metals

    Mass flow meters can provide precision measurement and control of proccss gases in many phases of plant operation. They make processes more repeatable and provide greater control over quality and costs. Sierra mass flow meters were designed for these purposes. They can make any plant more cost-effective in several ways: Aluminum Purification: Automated Gas Flow Control The last ...


    By Sierra Instruments, Inc.

  • Efficient removal of Cu(II) and Pb(II) heavy metal ions from water samples using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine loaded sodium dodecyl sulfate-coated magnetite nanoparticles

    This study reports on synthesis of a new nanoadsorbent for efficient Cu(II) and Pb(II) ions removal from water samples. In this regard, magnetite nanoparticles have been modified with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. The synthesized adsorbent has been fully characterized using scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffractometer, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, and Brunauer, Emmett, and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Measuring hydrogen off-gas in nuclear reactor - Case Study

    Nuclear reactor coolant removal monitored by hydrogen measurements provided by Systech's 542 programmable gas analyzers NNC Limited is using Systech's 542 programmable gas analyzers to monitor hydrogen off-gas in test rig for Dounreay Fast Breeder Reactor decommissioning. Decommissioning nuclear reactors is not only a matter ...


    By Systech Instruments Ltd

  • Eutrophication of Waters, Role of Phosphates, Preventive Measures - Phosphates and Alternative Detergent Builders

    Recognition of the relationship between increasing phosphorus inputs to surface waters and the subsequent increase in eutrophication of water bodies gave rise to public concern during the 1970’s and 1980’s. This led to action by several countries including the USA, Japan and some EU member states, to reduce phosphorus loads, particularly from urban and industrial point sources. The two main areas ...


  • Chemical Mass Transport Measurements to Determine Flexible Membrane Liner Lifetime

    The prediction of the service life of flexible membrane liners (FMLs) when exposed to chemicals has usually been by way of testing for physical or mechanical property changes after periodic exposure times. This paper presents an alternate approach by evaluating the chemical properties via five different mass transport related measurements of the exposed FML. These tests are water vapor ...


    By ASTM International

  • Comparison of in situ DGT measurement with ex situ methods for predicting cadmium bioavailability in soils with combined pollution to biotas

    To assess the capabilities of the different techniques in predicting Cadmium (Cd) bioavailability in Cd-contaminated soils with the addition of Zn, one in situ technique (diffusive gradients in thin films; DGT) was compared with soil solution concentration and four widely used single-step extraction methods (acetic acid, EDTA, sodium acetate and CaCl2). Wheat and maize were ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Maxum process gas chromatograph measures and optimizes synthetic rubber production – Case Study

    Rubber Rubber is a collective term for macromolecular substances of natural rubber (NR) or synthetic rubber (SR) origin. Natural rubber use dates back to the Mayas but was first recognized as technical material in 1851 by Charles Nelson Goodyear. He presented a new material produced from the milk of rubber trees, which had been treated with sulfur and vulcanized to strengthen the ...

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