soil classification Articles

  • Inadequacy in the Classification of Coarse-Grained Soils

    This note explores the rationale behind the unified soil classification system for coarse-grained soils. A few deficiencies in the system are pointed out. A density function plot of the grain-size distribution is proposed to supplement the grain-size distribution curve, which the author believes will minimize the ambiguities and give a more realistic representation of grain-size ...


    By ASTM International

  • Classification of Expansive Soils by Sediment Volume Method

    A soil expansivity classification is proposed based on the sediment volume ratio defined as the ratio of the sediment volume in 0.025% sodium chloride solution to that in kerosene. The results of the proposed classification agree well with one based on the oedometer test results of compacted soil ...


    By ASTM International

  • Treatment of Oil-Contaminated Soils for Identification and Classification

    An experimental investigation was performed to evaluate the effects of oil contamination on soils and to establish a methodology to identify and classify contaminated soils. Identification and classification tests were performed before treatment, cleaning, stabilization, or disposal of contaminated soils.There are no standards for identification and classification of contaminated soils. ...


    By ASTM International

  • Simplification of Soil Classification Charts Derived from the Cone Penetration Test

    This paper presents a semi-empirical approach to simplify existing CPT and PCPT soil classification charts. This approach is based on two tendencies in current charts, namely soil type and in situ soil state. These charts may be simplified into one-dimensional soil classification systems by linear conformal mapping. Accordingly, several charts are simplified, and a comparison to in situ testing ...


    By ASTM International

  • Pioneering Primer from Plastics Pipe Institute

    With administrative offices located in Dallas, Texas, The Plastics Pipe Institute Inc. (PPI) is the major trade association representing all segments of the plastics piping industry. PPI members share a common interest in broadening awareness and creating opportunities that expand market share and extend the use of plastics pipe in all its many applications. As an association, PPI focuses ...


    By TRIC Tools Inc.

  • Combining LiDAR and IKONOS data for eco-hydrological classification of an ombrotrophic peatland

    Received for publication March 11, 2009. Remote sensing techniques have potential for peatland monitoring, but most previous work has focused on spectral approaches that often result in poor discrimination of cover types and neglect structural information. Peatlands contain structural 'microtopes' (e.g., hummocks and hollows) which are linked to hydrology, biodiversity and carbon sequestration, ...

  • Forensic applications including mapping and classification of tsunami sand deposits and sand dunes with ground penetrating radar

    The coastal region experiences erosional, transportational and depositional events during mega events such as tsunami. The onshore deposits are significant in determining the past events of high–energy events in the coastal region. The Optically Simulated Luminescence (OSL) dating of the sediments by combining Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) records will reveal the past tsunami events. OSL dates ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Threats to soil quality in Europe

    During the recent years, there has been a surge of concern and attention in Europe to soil degradation processes. Initiated by the German Ministry for Environment in 1998 with the first European Soil Forum a process has been developing over the past ten years leading to the adoption by the European Commission in September 2006 of the Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection including a proposal for ...


  • Prediction of Potential Heave of Swelling Soil

    Methods of characterizing swell behavior and predicting total potential heave of foundation soils were compared with field measurements for three test sections. The methods used included nine empirical procedures, three types of consolidometer tests, and a thermocouple psychrometric soil suction method. It was found that simple classification tests can provide reasonable estimates of field ...


    By ASTM International

  • Integration of the soil database of Turkey into European soil database 1:1.000.000

    The first soil map of Europe was published at 1970 (Dudal et al., 1970). In 1985, the Commission of the European Communities (EC) published the soil map of the EC at 1:1,000,000 scales (CEC, 1985). In 1986, this map was digitised (Platou, Nørr and Madsen, 1989) in order to build a soil database and furthermore to be included in the CORINE project (Co-ordination of Information on the Environment). ...


  • European Digital Archive of Soil Maps (EuDASM); Metadata of The Soil Maps of Asia

    The European Digital Archive of Soil Maps (EuDASM) was initiated by the MOSES (Monitoring the State of European Soil) action team members of the Soil and Waste Unit (SWU) in the Institute of Environment and Sustainability (IES), located at the Joint Research Centre (JRC), Italy in collaboration with ISRIC – World Information Centre, Wageninegen, The Netherlands to establish a global digital ...


  • Soil Resources of Europe 2nd edition

    This volume provides the most comprehensive summary yet attempted of the current position regarding the detail and availability of soil information, particularly spatial data, at national and European levels. The first comprehensive summary of base-line soil resource data in Europe emerged from a meeting of the Heads of European Soil Surveys and Soil Data Centres, held at Silsoe in 1989 (EUR ...


  • Data Requirements for Soil, Sediment, and Sludge

    Site soil conditions frequently limit the selection of a treatment process. Process-limiting characteristics such as pH or moisture content may sometimes be adjusted. In other cases, a treatment technology may be eliminated based upon the soil classification (e.g., particle-size distribution) or other soil characteristics. Soils are inherently variable in their physical and chemical ...

  • Soil Sampling Protocol to Certify the Changes of Organic Carbon Stock in Mineral Soils of European Union - Version 2

    The study of the soil has always represented a challenge for the scientific community. Soil forms a continuum in space, so that classification is often difficult. Soil has a vertical dimension (depth), but many characteristics are not being visible from the surface. Its properties vary very slowly over time, so that changes are difficult to detect. The study of soil heavily depends on the ...


  • Total Suction of Artificial Mixtures of Soil Compacted at Optimum Water Content

    The effect of soil composition on total suction is investigated. Thermocouple psychrometers are used to measure total suction of compacted specimens of artificial soil mixtures prepared using kaolinite, sodium montmorillonite, and a fine sand. Specimens are compacted in a Harvard miniature compaction mold at the optimum water content. The measured total suction is related to fine fraction and ...


    By ASTM International

  • Suggested Practice for Description of Frozen Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)

    A standard practice is suggested for the description of frozen soils that is essentially identical to that in the National Research Council of Canada´s “Guide to a Field Description of Permafrost for Engineering Purposes” and is also identical to U.S. Department of Defense Military Standard MIL-STD-619B, Unified Soil Classification System for Roads, Airfields, Embankments, and Foundations. The ...


    By ASTM International

  • The Revised ASTM Standard on the Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)

    ASTM Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure) (D 2488) was significantly revised in 1984. Revisions were made to parallel the recent changes in ASTM Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (D 2487) and to reflect more of current practices used for visual-manual description and identification. Where possible, the number of terms for descriptive ...


    By ASTM International

  • A Scientific Basis for the Use of Index Tests in Identification of Expansive Soils

    The paper examines the scientific basis in the use of index properties, such as liquid limit, plasticity index, and activity, for estimating expansivities of natural kaolinitic and montmorillonitic soils by consideration of the fundamental mechanisms governing the soil swelling and plasticity characteristics. Results showed that the physicochemical mechanisms governing the swelling ability and ...


    By ASTM International

  • Addressing soil degradation in EU agriculture: relevant processes, practices and policies

    Agriculture occupies a substantial proportion of the European land, and consequently plays an important role in maintaining natural resources and cultural landscapes, a precondition for other human activities in rural areas. Unsustainable farming practices and land use, including mismanaged intensification as well as land abandonment, have an adverse impact on natural resources. Having recognised ...


  • Digital soil-class mapping from proximal and remotely sensed data at the field level

    Effective agronomic management at the field level requires an understanding of the spatial distribution of soil because edaphological processes are a function of interrelationships among the physical and chemical properties. In precision agriculture, these interrelationships need to be considered to create soil management classes. In order to identify management classes, the age-old questions ...

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