soil compaction Articles

  • Tax Credit Tips For Biogas Projects

    With the end of 2016 in plain view, anaerobic digestion (AD) projects in the development phase should examine what has to happen by December 31 in order to tap into available federal tax credits. Under current law, Section 45 of the federal tax code makes AD projects eligible for a Production Tax Credit (PTC), which can be converted into an Investment Tax Credit (ITC), if the projects are used to ...


    By BioCycle Magazine

  • Field Hydraulic Conductivity Tests for Compacted Soil Liners

    Field hydraulic conductivity tests are required to determine the in situ hydraulic conductivity of compacted clay soils used in the liners for hazardous waste management facilities. The test must be capable of measuring hydraulic conductivities of 1 × 10-9 m/s or less, and the values obtained must be representative of the overall soil liner. Few of the methods available are capable of both ...


    By ASTM International

  • Compact Alternative

    A system using combined treatment and dispersal piping provides a solution for a house on a small creekside lot. The owner of a four-bedroom home in Rochester, N.Y., noticed some wet spots on his 15- by 10-foot drainfield. As the civil engineer for a township, he understood the implications of leaking leach lines next to a creek. The system was 40 to 50 years old. The only solution he found on ...

  • Hydraulic conductivity of compacted lateritic soil treated with bagasse ash

    Lateritic soil treated with up to 12% bagasse ash content was compacted using reduced Proctor, standard Proctor, West African Standard and modified Proctor energies at −2, 0, 2 and 4% of optimum moisture content. The effects of moulding water, water content relative to optimum, initial degree of saturation at compaction, void ratio, bagasse ash content and compactive efforts on hydraulic ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • The Thawed Strength of Soil Compacted While Frozen: An Introductory Study

    In the northern United States and in Canada, expensive earthmoving equipment usually stands idle during winter months. Considerable overall economies would result if soil could be excavated, transported, and recompacted while frozen. If engineers are to accept winter operations with frozen soil, the soil after thawing should have a strength that approaches that of the same soil worked while ...


    By ASTM International

  • Large-Scale Laboratory Permeability Testing of a Compacted Clay Soil

    Constant-head permeability (hydraulic conductivity) tests were performed on samples of a compacted clay soil using a 0.914 by 0.914 by 0.457-m (3 by 3 by 1.5-ft) large-scale, double-ring, rigid-wall permeameter. A naturally occurring silty clay soil was used for the permeability tests. The soil was separated into five different fractions representing five different ranges in precompaction clod ...


    By ASTM International

  • Compatibility of Compacted Soils with Municipal Waste Combustion Ash Leachates

    Hydraulic conductivity values for three compacted soils were used as indices of compatibility of the soils with two municipal waste combustion (MWC) ash leachates. Specimens of the three soils were compacted to 90% of proctor compaction (ASTM D 693) in double-ring permeameters and permeated first with water (0.005 N CaSO4) and then with MWC ash leachate. The hydraulic conductivity values of the ...


    By ASTM International

  • Total Suction of Artificial Mixtures of Soil Compacted at Optimum Water Content

    The effect of soil composition on total suction is investigated. Thermocouple psychrometers are used to measure total suction of compacted specimens of artificial soil mixtures prepared using kaolinite, sodium montmorillonite, and a fine sand. Specimens are compacted in a Harvard miniature compaction mold at the optimum water content. The measured total suction is related to fine fraction and ...


    By ASTM International

  • Methods of Evaluating the Expansion Potential of Compacted Soils with Significant Fractions of Large Aggregate

    A laboratory investigation of the expansion potential of compacted soils with large-sized aggregate has been conducted. Methods developed for determining expansion potential include (1) laboratory expansion testing of representative specimens containing particles as large as practical and (2) prediction of expansion potential for soils with large-sized aggregate from the results of laboratory ...


    By ASTM International

  • Soil Washing

    Introduction: Soil washing is a water-based process for scrubbing soils ex situ to remove contaminants. The process removes contaminants from soils in one of two ways: By dissolving or suspending them in the wash solution (which can be sustained by chemical manipulation of pH for a period of time). By concentrating them into a smaller volume of soil through particle size ...

  • Bioremediation of soil

    In our experience, Bioremediation is best accomplished with Bio-augmentation, the addition of large numbers of selected micro-organisms grown in the production laboratory. In addition to bio-augmentation, several physical and chemical parameters must be controlled in order to obtain optimal growth and maximum degradation of soil contaminants. The major factors that are controlled during ...

  • Compatibility of compacted lateritic soil treated with bagasse ash and Municipal Solid Waste leachate

    Compatibility tests were carried out on lateritic soil treated with up to 12% bagasse ash compacted at about 2% wet of their respective optimum moistures using the standard Proctor energy. Samples were sequentially permeated with distilled water and municipal solid waste (MSW) leachate for 22 and 69 days, respectively, until steady flows were established. The final hydraulic conductivity values ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Goosegrass and Bermudagrass competition under compaction

    Goosegrass (Eleusine indica L.) is a serious weed in trafficked areas of bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) golf and sports turf. The objective of this study was to evaluate soil compaction and canopy cover as determinants of goosegrass competition in bermudagrass turf in sand soil. Goosegrass cover, plant density, and soil penetration resistance (SPR) were measured in traffic and no-traffic plots in ...

  • A Compaction Test Method for Soil-Rock Mixtures in which Equipment Size Effects are Minimized

    The development of a standard effort compaction test method for determining compaction characteristics of soil-rock mixtures having maximum particle sizes up to 51 or 76 mm (2 or 3 in.) is described. The method is based on results of a testing program to develop testing procedures for 305 and 457-mm (12 and 18-in.)-diameter molds in which equipment size effects are minimized, i.e., procedures ...


    By ASTM International

  • Compacted lateritic soil treated with blast furnace slag as hydraulic barriers in waste containment systems

    Laboratory testing was conducted to assess the feasibility of using lateritic soil mixed with up to 15% blast furnace slag (BFS) by dry weight of soil as a suitable hydraulic barrier. Tests were carried out on the lateritic soil-slag mixture to ascertain the particle size distribution, index properties and compaction characteristics. The relationship between hydraulic conductivity, unconfined ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Proposed New Standard Test Method for Laboratory Compaction Testing of Soil-Rock Mixtures Using Standard Effort

    The purpose of this proposed standard is to standardize a test method for determining standard effort compaction characteristics of soil-rock mixtures containing particles larger than the 3/4-in. (19.0-mm) sieve and finer than the 3-in. (76.2-mm) sieve. The proposed method utilizes a mechanical compactor equipped with a 12-in. (304.8-mm) or 18-in. (457.2-mm)-diameter mold and a 131.4-obf ...


    By ASTM International

  • Sampling moisture in the soil profile

    Patterns of water replenishment and use give rise to large spatial variations in soil moisture over the depth of the soil profile. Accurate measurements of profile water content are therefore the basis of any water budget study. When monitored accurately, profile measurements show the rates of water use, amounts of deep percolation, and amounts of water stored for plant use.Experimental ...


    By Decagon Devices, Inc.

  • Evaluation of Sulfate Expansion in Soil-Cements

    This paper presents the results of an evaluation of internal sulfate attack in soil-cements. Differences in rates and amounts of expansion were evaluated for several aggregate types. Sulfate expansion of soil-cement was evaluated using a modified version of ASTM Test Method for Length Change of Hardened Hydraulic Cement Mortar and Concrete (C 157) that utilized a falling weight compaction ...


    By ASTM International

  • Assessing Frost Damage in Compacted Clay Liners

    Methods used to assess frost damage (here defined as a large increase in hydraulic conductivity) in compacted clay liners are reviewed and evaluated using data collected from two test pads that were instrumented and then exposed to winter weather. The methods include comparisons of measurements of either water content and dry unit weight or hydraulic conductivity made before and after winter ...


    By ASTM International

  • Heat and Moisture Transfer Characteristics of Compacted Mackenzie Silt

    The heat and moisture transfer characteristics of a silt from the Mackenzie River Valley have been determined in a laboratory investigation. A dual gamma-ray scanner was used to measure the changes in density and volumetric moisture content along the soil samples. The coefficients of soil-water diffusivity under isothermal conditions and under temperature gradients have been obtained. The ...


    By ASTM International

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