soil-water conductivity Articles

  • Why evaluate hydraulic fluid compatibility?

    When introducing a new control fluid to hydraulic systems, it is important to ensure that the new liquid or mixture is of equal or superior quality to the previous fluid. If the new mixture is incompatible, precipitate may form and result in an overall inferior fluid. This can speed up clogging or damage the system. When a manufacturer of construction machinery releases a new line of bulldozers ...


    By Sterlitech Corporation

  • Pedotransfer functions to determine water conducting macroporosity in South African soils

    Macropores play an important role in the rapid transport of water, solutes and pollutants through the soil. Transport through these pores (>0.5 mm) is dominated by gravitational forces (i.e. matrix forces have low impact) resulting in flow rates orders of magnitude higher than rates that would be predicted, posing problems for modelling and understanding water and solute transport through soils. ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • The fundamental conductivity and resistivity of water

    Pure water has a very low. but not quite zero, electrical conductivity. This conductivity provides a probe into fundamental properties of water, including the electrochemical mobility of the hydrogen and hydroxide ions. Deviation from this value is a measure of trace ionic impurities. Ultrapure water (UPW). with impurities at or below the sub-parts-per-billion range, is used extensively in many ...


    By SnowPure Water Technologies

  • Estimating soil conductivity for GPR surveys

    The results of a ground penetrating radar survey depends on many factors. In order to get useful data and good penetration, one of the conditions is that the conductivity of the ground is not too high. The conductivity of the material together with the operating frequency and the dielectric constant allow us to calculate the loss factor that is used to roughly estimate the theoretical ...


    By Geoscanners AB

  • Calibration of Thermal Conductivity Sensors for Measuring Soil Suction

    The accuracy of suction measurements using thermal conductivity sensors is dependent upon their calibration. Therefore, a calibration study was undertaken by using a modified, commercially available, pressure plate extractor. The experimental setup along with the calibration procedure are described. Typical calibration results are presented. In general, results showed reasonable agreement between ...


    By ASTM International

  • Infiltration Testing for Hydraulic Conductivity of Soil Liners

    This paper describes the use of single ring infiltrometers for evaluating the hydraulic conductivity of compacted soil liners. Procedures are presented for installation and monitoring of infiltrometers in the field. Results of hydraulic conductivity estimated from infiltrometer tests on six laboratory model liners are presented and compared with the results of conventional laboratory tests. In ...


    By ASTM International

  • Field Hydraulic Conductivity Tests for Compacted Soil Liners

    Field hydraulic conductivity tests are required to determine the in situ hydraulic conductivity of compacted clay soils used in the liners for hazardous waste management facilities. The test must be capable of measuring hydraulic conductivities of 1 × 10-9 m/s or less, and the values obtained must be representative of the overall soil liner. Few of the methods available are capable of both ...


    By ASTM International

  • A method for measuring saturated hydraulic conductivity in Anisotropic soils

    Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) is an important soil parameter that is difficult to measure, especially in an anisotropic medium. Many methods for determining Ks have been developed over time, but taking different water flow directions into consideration is possible in only a few of them; furthermore, these few methods cannot be universally applied. The method proposed here allows Ks to be ...

  • Measure pH, conductivity, oxygen with HQD

    After just a short time, the HQD digital electrochemical measuring system has already established itself in practice. Both in the laboratory, with standard electrodes, and in the field, with rugged outdoor electrodes.  On the following pages, users describe their experience with the HQD system. Their experiences show that the system covers a wide range of applications, including direct ...


  • Conducting surveys for water supply and sanitation in Indonesia

    Surveys can vary in cost and complexity depending upon the sample size, number of questions and degree of accuracy. But sometimes, even after huge expenditures, the results can be misleading or just plain wrong. Simple surveys to determine willingness to pay or consumer preferences can be accomplished by the local government for minimal expense and still provide ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Pure water pH measurement in low conductivity samples

    Normally, pH measurements are made in water with 1,000 to 10,000 uS/cm conductivity. The conductivity conies from dissolved solids, typically, salts plus net acid or base which explains the exhibited pH. These dissolved substances are in the solution in ion form, which makes such solutions conducting. With 1,000 uS/cm conductivity of mobile ions pH electrodes have a good circuit and give fast, ...


    By IC Controls Ltd.

  • Hydraulic conductivity of compacted lateritic soil treated with bagasse ash

    Lateritic soil treated with up to 12% bagasse ash content was compacted using reduced Proctor, standard Proctor, West African Standard and modified Proctor energies at −2, 0, 2 and 4% of optimum moisture content. The effects of moulding water, water content relative to optimum, initial degree of saturation at compaction, void ratio, bagasse ash content and compactive efforts on hydraulic ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • The Thermal Probe—Measurement of the Thermal Conductivity and Drying Rate of Soil in the Field

    The thermal probe is a metal rod with an internal heating element and temperature sensor. In the field it is pushed into a predrilled hole in otherwise undisturbed soil, and the thermal properties of the soil are estimated from the temperatures recorded at intervals after a constant power is supplied to the heating element. The following are discussed in this paper: the theory behind the methods ...


    By ASTM International

  • Effect of urban waste compost application on soil near-saturated hydraulic conductivity

    Received for publication February 22, 2008. Compost application tends to increase soil fertility and is likely to modify soil hydrodynamic properties by acting on soil structural porosity. Two composts, a municipal solid waste compost (MSW) and a co-compost of green wastes and sewage sludge (SGW), have been applied every other year for 6 yr to cultivated plots located on a silt loam soil in the ...

  • Determining Bentonite Content in Soil-Bentonite Mixtures Using Electrical Conductivity

    A procedure based on electrical conductivity is described for measuring bentonite content in soil-bentonite mixtures having a wide range of bentonite contents. Standard equipment used for sedimentation analysis and an electrical conductivity meter are required. The procedure employs calibration curves relating electrical conductivity and bentonite concentration for soil-bentonite-water slurries. ...


    By ASTM International

  • Hydraulic conductivity of residual lateritic soil permeated with organic chemicals

    In this study, three lateritic soil samples compacted at 2% wet of optimum moisture content with British Standard Light (BSL) effort were permeated with acetone and ethanol over a range of concentrations (0, 25, 50, 75, 100%), while benzene and heptane were used at full strength. Hydraulic conductivity of specimens permeated with diluted solutions of acetone and ethanol ( ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Correlation between air permeability and saturated hydraulic conductivity: unburned and burned soils

    Prior research has shown a log–log correlation between ex situ air permeability (ka) measured at a matric potential of –50 and –100 cm H2O and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) in agricultural soils. We examined the applicability of a previously established log ka vs. log Ksat predictive relation in unburned and burned woodland–chaparral and coniferous soils. Specifically, we measured in ...

  • Conducting The Phase I Assessment - Records Review

     This is the second in a series of five articles relating to conducting Phase I Environmental Site assessments. Each article attempts to give the reader a thorough understanding of a specific aspect of the Phase I process and Clayton’s commitment to meeting or exceeding the requirements of ASTM Standard E 1527 Standard Practice for Environmental Site Assessments: Phase I Environmental Site ...


  • Numerical Modeling of a Thermal Conductivity Matric Suction Sensor

    Thermal conductivity matric suction sensors appear to be a promising device for the measurement of suction in soil. The technique indirectly measures matric suction by measuring the thermal conductivity of a ceramic block. This paper uses both a spherical and a cylindrical porous medium to simulate the heat flow in a thermal conductivity matric suction sensor. It is found that, although the ...


    By ASTM International

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