solar radiation Articles

  • Exergy of solar radiation

    Solar radiation reaching the ground is accompanied with radiation entropy. When the entropy production rate within any solar energy conversion device is to be calculated, the incoming radiation entropy flux has to be known. In this contribution, first it is shown how the radiation entropy flux arriving on earth is to be calculated. Secondly, the interaction between the incoming radiation and the ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Ionising Radiation

    Introduction The energy level of some types of radiation is high enough so that when they interact with matter they cause the formation of electrically charged particles or ion-pairs and break molecular bonds. These so-called ionising radiations are by their nature potentially harmful to life; at high doses they can be lethal and at lower doses can cause genetic damage. Ionising radiation occurs ...

  • ´More Stations. More Data. Better Forecasts.´ – the NYS Mesonet

    “More Stations. More Data. Better Forecasts.” – that’s the slogan of New York State Mesonet. The weather observation network consists of a total of 125 weather stations all over the state of New York and Lufft was selected as one of the vendors to support them in capturing the data. All 125 of the weathers stations have the standard instrumentation suite. Of those 125, 17 ...

  • Estimation of monthly average solar radiation in Libya

    In order to estimate the monthly average global radiation, regression equations for eleven stations in Libya are fitted, using monthly average hours of sunshine duration as predictors. Since only eight years of monthly average global radiation are available for each station, a reliable model for estimating solar radiation for each single month could not be obtained. The monthly data were merged ...


    By Springer

  • Model The Earth Shield From The Intense Solar Radiation

    SummaryIn this paper we will introduce the required powder to shield our earth and reducing the solar heat which will be intensified within the future. Three types of powder ‘Alumina, uranium, and Sand’ of various sizes ‘0-1000 um’ were involved in our mathematical model. Two types of shield were proposed, one around the earth and the alternative was around the sun. The Matlab program was ...


  • A study of radiation shield effectiveness

    A brief comparison of temperature readings in two passively-ventilated and three fan-aspirated radiation shields under conditions of low wind and relatively high insolation is presented. From each of two periods of study, two days were chosen for conditions of high insolation and low wind to illustrate a reasonable sample of the performance of the shields. A single sample of each shield was used ...


    By Davis Instruments Corp.

  • Non-Ionising Radiation

    Pressures on the environment may occur through chemical, physical and biological agents. The subject of this study is physical agents, where physical fields are examined. Physical fields are part of the natural environment. Depending upon their properties and the surrounding conditions, physical fields are transmitted through the spaces in which we live, potentially affecting human health and ...

  • Artificial intelligence techniques for prediction of solar radiation data: a review

    Artificial intelligence (AI) techniques are becoming useful as alternate approaches to conventional techniques. They have been used to solve complicated practical problems in various areas and are able to deal with non–linear problems. AI techniques have been applied for modelling, identification, optimisation, prediction, forecasting, and control of complex systems. Artificial neural networks ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Solar radiation effects on evaporative losses of floating roof storage tanks

    There are 40 storage tanks in the Khark Island for storing crude oil. Considering the hot summers of the island, light hydrocarbons vaporise and vented to the atmosphere. This process causes environmental pollution and also affects the quality of the crude oil besides the economic detriment. Therefore, crude oil evaporation loss associated with the storage tank is an important issue which should ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Water disinfection by solar radiation in a green house effect device

    The water-borne diseases are major concerns in developing countries since they are the main cause of sickness and death among the population in rural communities. The traditional methods such as chlorination and the use of fuelwood to boil water has important environmental consequences and in some cases are rejected by population. The solar water heaters are considered as an effective, low cost ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Measures to weaken the influence of solar radiation on peak cooling load in office buildings

    Using the building energy simulation program EnergyPlus, the authors studied and analysed measures to weaken the influence of solar radiation on peak cooling load in office buildings. The peak cooling reduction effect on exterior wall outside surface solar radiant absorptance and different kinds of exterior window constructions were analysed by simulation. The results show that using a low solar ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Calibration of selected pyranometers and satellite derived solar radiation in Puerto Rico

    Knowledge of solar radiation at the ground surface is valuable for many disciplines. In this study, ground–based sensors at Fortuna and Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, were used to calibrate daily–integrated satellite–derived solar radiation. The calibration equations yielded R² values of 0.88 and 0.83 at Fortuna and Mayaguez, respectively. A regression equation was also derived ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Synthesis of incoming shortwave radiation for hydrological simulation

    Over the past decade, measurements of incoming shortwave radiation and of its proxy, daily bright sunshine hours, have become scarce in western Canada and elsewhere. As these data are critical for computing net radiation for snowmelt, evaporation, soil thaw and other components of the hydrological cycle, other means to estimate incoming shortwave radiation are needed. National Centers for ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Induction of thymine dimers by solar radiation in natural freshwater phytoplankton assemblages in Patagonia, Argentina

    Natural phytoplankton assemblages from a freshwater lake in Trelew (Province of Chubut, Patagonia, Argentina) were exposed to natural solar radiation at different depths in a water basin filled with fresh water rich in humic substances. Samples were taken at regular intervals for DNA extraction and subsequent analysis of DNA damage by determining the formation of thymine dimers using an ...


    By Springer

  • Correlation model of hourly diffuse solar radiation based on ASHRAE model: a study case in India

    Measurements of diffuse and global solar radiation carried out from January 2001 to December 2005 at Ahmedabad, Mumbai, Calcutta, Chennai and Pune cities of India, representing varying weather conditions of the entire country, have been used to develop the correlation model for the estimating hourly values of diffuse solar radiation on horizontal surface. The comparisons of the present estimated ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Photocatalytic reactive oxygen species production and phototoxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles are dependent on the solar ultraviolet radiation spectrum

    Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano‐TiO2) and its consequent phototoxicity to Daphnia magna were measured under different solar ultraviolet (UV) spectra by applying a series of optical filters in a solar simulator. Removing UV‐B (280–320 nm) from solar radiation had no significant impact on photocatalytic ROS production of nano‐TiO2, whereas removal ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Phototoxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles under solar radiation to two aquatic species: Daphnia magna and Japanese medaka

    One target of development and application of TiO2 nanoparticles (nano‐TiO2) is photochemical degradation of contaminants and photo‐killing of microbes and fouling organisms. However, few ecotoxicological studies have focused on this aspect of nano‐TiO2, specifically whether this photoreactivity might significantly increase hazard and risk of the materials in the natural environment. In the ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Solar radiation estimated from measured air temperature: a review and proposed a new model

    Estimation of solar radiation from measured air temperature offers an important alternative in the absence of measured solar radiation because of the wide availability of air temperature data. Solar radiation is considered as the most important parameter in meteorology, solar conversion, and renewable energy applications. Many correlation models have been developed to estimate daily solar ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Relating geo–meteorological parameters to global solar radiation for Egypt by Iranna–Bapat's estimation models

    Estimation of solar radiation is considered as the most important parameter for the design and development of various solar energy systems. But, the availability of the required data is very scarce and often not readily accessible. The foremost objective of the present study was to estimate the monthly average global solar radiation (GSR) at various locations for Egypt, by the generalised ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Statistical analysis and inter-comparison of the solar UVB, UVA and global radiation for Beer Sheva and Neve Zohar (Dead Sea), Israel

    A statistical analysis and inter-comparison of the solar UVB, UVA and global radiation for Beer Sheva and Neve Zohar (Dead Sea) are presented utilizing data measured from January 1995 through December 2002. Beer Sheva is located approximately 65km to the west of and 700m above Neve Zohar. The monthly average hourly and daily values for all radiation types at both sites are reported. The standard ...


    By Springer

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