source sampling Articles

  • Overview of Using Lead Through the History

    Various sources assumed the share of guilt in the fall of the Roman Empire due to the use of the lead pipe, Devonshire colic in the 18th century, poisoning from the addition of lead acetate to wine and pediatric lead poisoning. Not only production but also the use of pottery for centuries caused poisoning among the population. When a piece of pottery covered with lead glaze is not heated enough, ...


    By Lumex Instruments Group

  • Two Sources are Better Than One – More Choices for Sample Ionization with ESI and APCI

    IntroductionTwo compounds were submitted for molecular weight deter-mination using the 1200L LC/MS. Electrospray Ionization (ESI) is generally the ionization method of choice for compounds analyzed with LC/MS systems. ESI works well for a wide variety of analytes. However, there are instances where particular analytes do not ionize well with ESI. In these cases, a second ionization method, ...


  • Polytopic vector analysis of soil, dust, and serum samples to evaluate exposure sources of PCDD/Fs

    As part of the University of Michigan Dioxin Exposure Study, soil, household dust, and serum samples were collected from over 750 households in five populations around the city of Midland and in Jackson and Calhoun Counties, Michigan, USA. Polytopic vector analysis, a type of receptor model, was applied to better understand the potential sources of polychlorinated dibenzo‐p‐dioxins and ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Source reconstruction: a statistical mechanics perspective

    A Bayesian inference scheme is used to address the problem of general source reconstruction. To this purpose, starting from a simple, physically motivated structure–based representation for a general source distribution, Bayesian probability theory is used to formulate the full joint posterior probability density function for the parameters in this representation. The exploration of the ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Fate of hydrocarbon pollutants in source and non-source control sustainable drainage systems

    Sustainable drainage (SuDs) is an established method for managing runoff from developments, and source control is part of accepted design philosophy. However, there are limited studies into the contribution source control makes to pollutant removal, especially for roads. This study examines organic pollutants, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), in ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Technical Bulletin: Multilevel Sampling

    The topic of this CL:AIRE Technical Bulletin is multilevel sampling systems for characterising contaminated groundwater. Contaminated groundwater can present considerable problems for landowners: it can occur at significant depth, sources of the contamination are not often obvious, it can migrate from one property to another, and groundwater flow directions can be altered due to seasonal ...


    By Solinst Canada Ltd.

  • Biodegradation Tests for Wastewater Samples

    Biodegradation Tests for Wastewater Samples Biodegradation tests usually involve comparison of the oxygen uptake of a test sample – or gas production for anoxic or anaerobic tests – to that for a readily biodegradable control substrate (usually acetic acid, ethanol, or aniline). While biodegradation characteristics can vary among chemical types and wastewater sources, typical patterns are shown ...


    By Challenge Technology

  • Source tracking of Enterococcus moraviensis and E. haemoperoxidus

    Enterococci were detected occasionally in 100 L samples of water abstracted from a shallow aquifer in a natural dune infiltration area for drinking water production. Enterococcus moraviensis was the species most frequently identified in these samples. Because there are no existing reports of faecal sources of E. moraviensis and the closely related E. ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Tracing fine sediment sources in small mountain catchment

    Fine sediment represents an important diffuse source pollutant in surface waters, due to its role in governing the transfer and fate of many substances, including nutrients, heavy metals, pesticides and other organic contaminants, and its influence on aquatic ecology. Therefore, catchment management strategies frequently need to include provision for the control of sediment mobilization and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Cryptosporidium source tracking in the potomac river watershed

    To better characterize Cryptosporidium in the Potomac River watershed, a PCR-based genotyping tool was used to analyze 64 base flow and 28 storm flow samples from five sites in the watershed. These sites included two water treatment plant intakes, as well as three upstream sites, each associated with a different type of land use. The uses, including urban wastewater, ...

  • Sources of external organisational learning in small manufacturing firms

    This paper focuses on identifying external learning sources of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) and the relationship between external learning sources and dynamic capabilities. Our results indicate that the most common sources of external learning for SMEs, in order, are customers, suppliers, the scientific community and other industries. The least common sources are competitors, ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Characterisation of pollutant sources in Istanbul with PM10 and EU directives

    Air pollution is globally significant because pollutants not only affect their source region, but also through transport they can affect other regions. The purpose of this study is to show the stand point of Turkey for EU directives. Sampling days that exceed PM10 limit values of EU PM10 restrictions are chosen as episode days for this research (PM10 > 150 μg/m³). Two test cases representative of ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Portable lead analyzer to locate source of lead

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the sources of lead in the environment in children with elevated blood, with the help of a Field Portable X-Ray ...

  • Holy springs and holy water: underestimated sources of illness?

    Use of holy springs and holy water is inherent in religious activities. Holy spring water is also used extensively for personal drinking water, although not assessed according to drinking water standards. Holy water in churches and chapels may cause infections via wetting of lips and sprinkling on persons. Our aim was to assess the microbiological and chemical water quality of holy springs and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • The water environment as a source of potentially pathogenic mycobacteria

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous organisms of a wide variety of environmental reservoirs, including natural and municipal water, soil, aerosols, protozoans, animals and humans. Several of these species are potential pathogens which affect human health. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of NTM in the water environment. Samples were taken from 13 water-related ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Characterization of ambient aerosols in Northern Thailand and their probable sources

    The present study examines variation of ambient aerosol mass and number concentrations in Chiang Mai, Thailand during winter. Aerosol particle samples were collected and measured at four different sites, representative of urban, industrial, residential and rural areas during daytime between December 2003 and January 2004. Average 10 h particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations were found to be ...

  • Use of Diaphragm pumps in Sampling systems

    INTRODUCTION Sample system design can take many forms, influenced by factors including cost, size, maintenance, source conditions, and analyzer requirements – to mention a few. The following discussion takes into account the operating characteristics of a diaphragm pump, and choices that will improve system performance, reduce measurement errors, and lower pump maintenance. Illustrated below are ...


    By Air Dimensions Inc

  • Ground Water Sampling - A Workshop Summary

    Monitoring purposes have evolved in the past decade reflecting an increasing emphasis on assessment and remedial action performance over detection monitoring. The recognition of many potential contamination sources as well as the regulatory inclusion of a large number of sites in need of investigation have spurred this evolution in practice. New more efficient methods and tools for ...


    By QED Environmental Systems

  • Assessment of source tracking methods for application in spring water

    For discriminating between human and animal faecal contamination in water, microbial source tracking (MST) approaches using different indicators have been employed. In the current study, a range of 10 such MST indicators described in the scientific literature were comparatively assessed. Bacteriophages infecting host strains of Bacteroides (GA-17, GB-124 and ARABA 84) as well as ...


    By IWA Publishing

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