source sampling Articles

  • Oil Sampling Best Practices (Part 2)

    Understanding Dynamic Particle Equilibrium in Closed Loop Systems Dynamic Equilibrium Condition (DEC) is defined as a steady state condition where the normal wear rate in a machine results in no net gain or loss of particles. ...


    By Spectro Scientific

  • Monitoring the oxygen content in bio-methane-to-grid supply

    Orbital utilise the EC91 ATEX oxygen analyser from Systech Illinois to accurately monitor the oxygen content in the purified bio-methane gas prior to it being injected into the national grid gas network In September 2010, Orbital installed the gas monitoring and treatment plant on the UK’s very first large-scale bio-methane-to-grid production facility. This site was designed specifically to ...


    By Systech Instruments Ltd

  • Polytopic vector analysis of soil, dust, and serum samples to evaluate exposure sources of PCDD/Fs

    As part of the University of Michigan Dioxin Exposure Study, soil, household dust, and serum samples were collected from over 750 households in five populations around the city of Midland and in Jackson and Calhoun Counties, Michigan, USA. Polytopic vector analysis, a type of receptor model, was applied to better understand the potential sources of polychlorinated dibenzo‐p‐dioxins and ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Two Sources are Better Than One – More Choices for Sample Ionization with ESI and APCI

    IntroductionTwo compounds were submitted for molecular weight deter-mination using the 1200L LC/MS. Electrospray Ionization (ESI) is generally the ionization method of choice for compounds analyzed with LC/MS systems. ESI works well for a wide variety of analytes. However, there are instances where particular analytes do not ionize well with ESI. In these cases, a second ionization method, ...


  • Fate of hydrocarbon pollutants in source and non-source control sustainable drainage systems

    Sustainable drainage (SuDs) is an established method for managing runoff from developments, and source control is part of accepted design philosophy. However, there are limited studies into the contribution source control makes to pollutant removal, especially for roads. This study examines organic pollutants, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), in ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Source reconstruction: a statistical mechanics perspective

    A Bayesian inference scheme is used to address the problem of general source reconstruction. To this purpose, starting from a simple, physically motivated structure–based representation for a general source distribution, Bayesian probability theory is used to formulate the full joint posterior probability density function for the parameters in this representation. The exploration of the ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Source separated residential composting in the US

    THE Field of Dreams movie theme, “if you build it they will come,” is definitely à propos to source separated residential organics composting. While conducting this year's survey, we asked program managers what they think the key ingredients are to offering households the ability to divert more than just yard trimmings at the curb - a practice that is widely adopted in some Canadian provinces and ...


    By BioCycle Magazine

  • Technical Bulletin: Multilevel Sampling

    The topic of this CL:AIRE Technical Bulletin is multilevel sampling systems for characterising contaminated groundwater. Contaminated groundwater can present considerable problems for landowners: it can occur at significant depth, sources of the contamination are not often obvious, it can migrate from one property to another, and groundwater flow directions can be altered due to seasonal ...


    By Solinst Canada Ltd.

  • Biodegradation Tests for Wastewater Samples

    Biodegradation Tests for Wastewater Samples Biodegradation tests usually involve comparison of the oxygen uptake of a test sample – or gas production for anoxic or anaerobic tests – to that for a readily biodegradable control substrate (usually acetic acid, ethanol, or aniline). While biodegradation characteristics can vary among chemical types and wastewater sources, typical patterns are shown ...


    By Challenge Technology

  • Cryptosporidium source tracking in the potomac river watershed

    To better characterize Cryptosporidium in the Potomac River watershed, a PCR-based genotyping tool was used to analyze 64 base flow and 28 storm flow samples from five sites in the watershed. These sites included two water treatment plant intakes, as well as three upstream sites, each associated with a different type of land use. The uses, including urban wastewater, ...

  • The water environment as a source of potentially pathogenic mycobacteria

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous organisms of a wide variety of environmental reservoirs, including natural and municipal water, soil, aerosols, protozoans, animals and humans. Several of these species are potential pathogens which affect human health. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of NTM in the water environment. Samples were taken from 13 water-related ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Sources of particulate matter: emission profile of biomass burning

    Biomass burning is an important source of atmospheric Particulate Matter (PM) in Brazil: the burning of forests in the northwest and of sugar cane plantations in the southeast are important examples. The objective of this work is the measurement of the PM emission profile of burning of sugar cane and other characteristic vegetative burning in the region of Sao Carlos-SP/Brazil. Samples of PM10 ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Enteric viruses in New Zealand drinking-water sources

    This study determined whether human pathogenic viruses are present in two New Zealand surface waters that are used as drinking-water sources. Enteric viruses were concentrated using hollow-fibre ultrafiltration and detected using PCR for adenovirus (AdV), and reverse transcription PCR for norovirus (NoV) genogroups I-III, enterovirus, rotavirus (RoV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV). Target viruses ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Use of Diaphragm pumps in Sampling systems

    INTRODUCTION Sample system design can take many forms, influenced by factors including cost, size, maintenance, source conditions, and analyzer requirements – to mention a few. The following discussion takes into account the operating characteristics of a diaphragm pump, and choices that will improve system performance, reduce measurement errors, and lower pump maintenance. Illustrated below are ...


    By Air Dimensions Inc

  • Vegetation: A source of air fungal bio-contaminant

    Airborne fungal counts and types were examined in three selected regions in Egypt. Two of the sampling sites are rural areas, one cultivated with chamomile and the second with vegetable. The third site is located in an urban area. A sedimentation method was used to isolate airborne fungal spores. Airborne fungal spore counts averaged 71\pm 19, 64\pm 14 and 175\pm 79 cfu/p/h in the urban, ...


    By Springer

  • Ground Water Sampling - A Workshop Summary

    Monitoring purposes have evolved in the past decade reflecting an increasing emphasis on assessment and remedial action performance over detection monitoring. The recognition of many potential contamination sources as well as the regulatory inclusion of a large number of sites in need of investigation have spurred this evolution in practice. New more efficient methods and tools for ...


    By QED Environmental Systems

  • Sample Preparation for Refuse Derived Fuels

    Plastic, wood and shredded waste, are in times of rising crude oil prices very interesting additions to the classic fuels. Especially in the cement industry, the energy rich fractions from conditioning processes are readily burned along. Important here is the analytical evaluation of the materials. Refuse derived fuels: Plastic, wood and shredded waste: Here are some examples of more or less well ...


    By Fritsch Milling and Sizing

  • Tracing fine sediment sources in small mountain catchment

    Fine sediment represents an important diffuse source pollutant in surface waters, due to its role in governing the transfer and fate of many substances, including nutrients, heavy metals, pesticides and other organic contaminants, and its influence on aquatic ecology. Therefore, catchment management strategies frequently need to include provision for the control of sediment mobilization and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Sources of external organisational learning in small manufacturing firms

    This paper focuses on identifying external learning sources of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) and the relationship between external learning sources and dynamic capabilities. Our results indicate that the most common sources of external learning for SMEs, in order, are customers, suppliers, the scientific community and other industries. The least common sources are competitors, ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

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