source sampling Articles

  • Anaerobic Digestion Reduces Microplastics in Sludge

    Anaerobic digestion can help remove microplastics — a large cause of water pollution — during the sewage treatment process Microplastics, or tiny fragments of plastic, include microbeads, the plastic pellets present in thousands of household and personal care products, including toothpaste, cosmetics, and beauty scrubs. They also include fragments from the breakdown of anything in our ...


    By Fluence Corporation

  • How Does a Gas Analyser Work?

    Whatever you want to detect, you need to identify a property of the object that is easy-enough to measure. When it comes to monitoring and analysis of gaseous species (atoms or more commonly molecules), it turns out that it often is possible to utilize the optical properties of the gas. You need a light source, a light detector, and a characteristic behaviour of the gaseous species in question ...


    By Opsis AB

  • Recent Federal Developments

    TSCA/FIFRA EPA Extends Comment Period For Draft Guidance For Pesticide Registrants On Notifications, Non-notifications, And Minor Formulation Amendments: On October 5, 2017, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a notice of extension of the comment period for the draft guidance  ...


    By Bergeson & Campbell, P.C.

  • What are the main indicators of water quality?

    “Water is the driving force of all nature;” so said Leonardo da Vinci. The survival of our planet depends on the availability of water and the condition that it is in. It is therefore vital to make sure that it is able to provide a hospitable environment for those that live in it, and is free from harmful levels of substances for those that drink it. Not ...


    By Aquaread Limited

  • Two Sources are Better Than One – More Choices for Sample Ionization with ESI and APCI

    IntroductionTwo compounds were submitted for molecular weight deter-mination using the 1200L LC/MS. Electrospray Ionization (ESI) is generally the ionization method of choice for compounds analyzed with LC/MS systems. ESI works well for a wide variety of analytes. However, there are instances where particular analytes do not ionize well with ESI. In these cases, a second ionization method, ...


  • Polytopic vector analysis of soil, dust, and serum samples to evaluate exposure sources of PCDD/Fs

    As part of the University of Michigan Dioxin Exposure Study, soil, household dust, and serum samples were collected from over 750 households in five populations around the city of Midland and in Jackson and Calhoun Counties, Michigan, USA. Polytopic vector analysis, a type of receptor model, was applied to better understand the potential sources of polychlorinated dibenzo‐p‐dioxins and ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Fate of hydrocarbon pollutants in source and non-source control sustainable drainage systems

    Sustainable drainage (SuDs) is an established method for managing runoff from developments, and source control is part of accepted design philosophy. However, there are limited studies into the contribution source control makes to pollutant removal, especially for roads. This study examines organic pollutants, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), in ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Source reconstruction: a statistical mechanics perspective

    A Bayesian inference scheme is used to address the problem of general source reconstruction. To this purpose, starting from a simple, physically motivated structure–based representation for a general source distribution, Bayesian probability theory is used to formulate the full joint posterior probability density function for the parameters in this representation. The exploration of the ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Technical Bulletin: Multilevel Sampling

    The topic of this CL:AIRE Technical Bulletin is multilevel sampling systems for characterising contaminated groundwater. Contaminated groundwater can present considerable problems for landowners: it can occur at significant depth, sources of the contamination are not often obvious, it can migrate from one property to another, and groundwater flow directions can be altered due to seasonal ...


    By Solinst Canada Ltd.

  • Biodegradation Tests for Wastewater Samples

    Biodegradation Tests for Wastewater Samples Biodegradation tests usually involve comparison of the oxygen uptake of a test sample – or gas production for anoxic or anaerobic tests – to that for a readily biodegradable control substrate (usually acetic acid, ethanol, or aniline). While biodegradation characteristics can vary among chemical types and wastewater sources, typical patterns are shown ...


    By Challenge Technology

  • Cryptosporidium source tracking in the potomac river watershed

    To better characterize Cryptosporidium in the Potomac River watershed, a PCR-based genotyping tool was used to analyze 64 base flow and 28 storm flow samples from five sites in the watershed. These sites included two water treatment plant intakes, as well as three upstream sites, each associated with a different type of land use. The uses, including urban wastewater, ...

  • Source tracking of Enterococcus moraviensis and E. haemoperoxidus

    Enterococci were detected occasionally in 100 L samples of water abstracted from a shallow aquifer in a natural dune infiltration area for drinking water production. Enterococcus moraviensis was the species most frequently identified in these samples. Because there are no existing reports of faecal sources of E. moraviensis and the closely related E. ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • The water environment as a source of potentially pathogenic mycobacteria

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous organisms of a wide variety of environmental reservoirs, including natural and municipal water, soil, aerosols, protozoans, animals and humans. Several of these species are potential pathogens which affect human health. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of NTM in the water environment. Samples were taken from 13 water-related ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Tracing fine sediment sources in small mountain catchment

    Fine sediment represents an important diffuse source pollutant in surface waters, due to its role in governing the transfer and fate of many substances, including nutrients, heavy metals, pesticides and other organic contaminants, and its influence on aquatic ecology. Therefore, catchment management strategies frequently need to include provision for the control of sediment mobilization and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Enteric viruses in New Zealand drinking-water sources

    This study determined whether human pathogenic viruses are present in two New Zealand surface waters that are used as drinking-water sources. Enteric viruses were concentrated using hollow-fibre ultrafiltration and detected using PCR for adenovirus (AdV), and reverse transcription PCR for norovirus (NoV) genogroups I-III, enterovirus, rotavirus (RoV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV). Target viruses ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Sources of particulate matter: emission profile of biomass burning

    Biomass burning is an important source of atmospheric Particulate Matter (PM) in Brazil: the burning of forests in the northwest and of sugar cane plantations in the southeast are important examples. The objective of this work is the measurement of the PM emission profile of burning of sugar cane and other characteristic vegetative burning in the region of Sao Carlos-SP/Brazil. Samples of PM10 ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Characterisation of pollutant sources in Istanbul with PM10 and EU directives

    Air pollution is globally significant because pollutants not only affect their source region, but also through transport they can affect other regions. The purpose of this study is to show the stand point of Turkey for EU directives. Sampling days that exceed PM10 limit values of EU PM10 restrictions are chosen as episode days for this research (PM10 > 150 μg/m³). Two test cases representative of ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Sources of external organisational learning in small manufacturing firms

    This paper focuses on identifying external learning sources of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) and the relationship between external learning sources and dynamic capabilities. Our results indicate that the most common sources of external learning for SMEs, in order, are customers, suppliers, the scientific community and other industries. The least common sources are competitors, ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Portable lead analyzer to locate source of lead

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the sources of lead in the environment in children with elevated blood, with the help of a Field Portable X-Ray ...

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