surface measurement Articles

  • Automated Measurement of Slurry Surface Settlement

    An automated float method for measuring slurry surface settlement is described. The system consists of a Perspex float which is denser than water but lighter than the slurry into which it penetrates slightly and floats on the slurry/water interface. Settlement of this float is then automatically tracked using an LVDT. Comparison with direct cathetometer measurement demonstrates that except for ...


    By ASTM International

  • Process-generated contaminants

    Overview: There is not currently a formal and universally recognised definition of a process-generated substance. Process-generated contaminants can be generated as emissions from combustion processes, abrasion and/or other processes that physically or chemically degrade or otherwise modify the starting material(s), e.g. degradation/composting of organic materials. Such ...

  • PRS - Neoloy Geocell Research

    This study by Kief and Toan, published in Geotec Hanoi, surveys worldwide research, demonstrating that NPA Geocells improve layer modulus by up to x5 and reduce total costs of pavement construction by up to 20%.  The study shows that NPA Geocells are a sustainable solution for the structural base ...


    By PRS Geo-Technologies

  • A Device for the Measurement of Sub-Surface Ground Vibrations

    A reliable measurement of free-field stress waves from transient loading has several important applications, for example, in the design of effective wave barriers to protect sensitive equipment and in the design of underground protective structures against explosive loading, to name a few. The characteristics of a stress wave are highly dependent on the energy source and the soil medium through ...


    By ASTM International

  • Measurements of Methane Emissions and Surface Methane Oxidation at Landfills: WR1125

    Methane emissions from landfill were estimated to account for around 3% of the UK‟s total greenhouse gas emissions in 2009. The reported figure for methane emissions from landfill in the UK represents 41.5% of all UK methane emissions. The IPCC guidelines indicate that measurement of methane emissions is necessary to validate models and to provide confidence in country specific model ...

  • Dynamic rotary torque measurement using surface acoustic waves

    The subject of torque measurement has previously been addressed extensively. Most of the existing transducers either rely on low voltage analogue systems (e.g. conventional resistive strain gauge) or complicated mechanical assemblies by physically assessing displacement, i.e. optical systems. This paper identifies a new, potentially low cost, non-contact, frequency domain strain torque sensor1 ...


    By Sensor Technology Ltd

  • Measuring carbon dioxide (CO2) along ocean surfaces case study

    Customer: Confidential Application: A research team needed to study the levels and variations of one of the major greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO2) along the ocean surfaces. The research team required CO2 analysers to be installed in commercial ocean liners to monitor the “dry” level of ...


    By Ecotech Pty Ltd

  • Some thoughts on in-situ flux measurement in the atmospheric surface layer

    Due to its complexity, the state of a turbulent atmosphere can only be described using statistical quantities such as means, variances, and covariances. Computation of these statistical quantities, particularly those of higher order, must be done with considerable care. This is particularly true if the statistics are used to depict heat and momentum fluxes. This note contains considerations that ...

  • Surface ozone measurements and meteorological influences in the urban atmosphere of Istanbul

    Hourly measurements of ozone concentration in the urban atmosphere of Istanbul were carried out from February 1998 to July 1999. An assessment of the annual variations and relationships of ozone concentrations and meteorological variables was made. Annual variations were first examined without considering meteorological variables, and meteorological influences on ozone seasonal values were then ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Measurements of air–surface exchange rates of volatile organic compounds

    Vertical gradients of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured over a maize field and a soybean field in 1995 and 1996, respectively, in the Lower Coastal Plains of North Carolina. The measurements over the maize field were conducted in its early growth period, during May 1995, and the measurements over the soybean field were conducted in its middle and later growth periods during July ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Surface roughness vision measurement in different ambient light conditions

    Machine vision method was used to measure the surface roughness for different Φ38 mm grinding axes in different ambient light conditions. To analyse the effect of ambient light, a method based on the grey-level co-occurrence matrix was applied at the first step. Then, a new calculation method was proposed to minimise the effect of ambient light during measurement. At the calibration stage, ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Phosphorus control protects surface waters

    Phosphorus is the decisive factor for excessive algae and plant growth in water bodies, that’s why quality standards require reductions in the amount of phosphorus released from wastewater treatment plants into rivers and lakes. In recent years, the outlet limit values have not only been reduced on national levels. Depending on the vulnerability of ecosystems, especially low target values ...


    By Endress Hauser

  • InAs nanostructures on polar GaAs surfaces

    InAs nanostructures were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs (111)B and (211)B substrates at various growth temperatures between 450°C and 530°C. Their structural properties were studied by atomic force microscopy. For the (111)B grown nanostructures, the formation of self-aligned InAs quantum dashes was revealed, which in some cases took the form of nanowires. In the (211)B case, the shape ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • A preliminary analysis of measurements from a near-field pollutants dispersion campaign in a stratified surface layer

    In order to study pollutants dispersion in a stably stratified surface layer at small scales, a pollutants dispersion field experiment programme is being conducted on the site SIRTA in the southern suburb of Paris. In a preliminary campaign held during the winter of 2012 with continuous gas releases, we had 12 ultrasonic anemometers measuring wind velocity and temperature at 10 Hz, and six ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • A smartphone camera for the structure from motion reconstruction for measuring soil surface variations and soil loss due to erosion

    The suitability of a smartphone camera for the structure from motion (SfM) reconstruction for monitoring variations in soil surface characteristics and soil loss originated by a low intensity erosive event was evaluated. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) was used to validate the SfM model. Two surveys of the soil surface, one before and one after the rainfall event, were carried out for SfM and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Data Requirements for Ground Water, Surface Water, and Leachate

    It is common for ground water to be contaminated with the water soluble substances found in overlying soils. Many of the required data elements are similar, e.g., pH, TOC, BOD, COD, oil and grease, contaminant identification and quantification, and soil and aquifer characterization. Additional water quality monitoring data elements include hardness, ammonia, total dissolved solids, and metals ...

  • Putting the surface microphone through its paces at Airbus

    Thirty-odd years later, the A380 – the widest commercial airliner available today with seating for 525 passengers – will be entering into service. It is another testament to Airbus’ commitment to innovation and intelligent design. Therefore, Airbus came to Brüel & Kjær for the development of a transducer they could invariably use to measure sound pressure in ...

  • Chlorine Theory & Measurement

    Chlorine, dissolved in liquid is one of the most effective and economical semi-killers for the treatment of water to make it potable or safe to drink. Chlorine's powerful disinfectant qualities come from its ability to bond with and destroy the outer surfaces of bacteria and viruses. Drinking water chlorination is one of the most widely used methods to safeguard chinking water supplies. In ...


    By IC Controls Ltd.

  • Determination of uranium concentration in surface soil samples of Iran

    The use of uranium-tipped antitank shells during the Iraq war (2003) caused serious concerns in Iran and the international media over possible contamination of the Iranian environment and consequent long-term health effects. After a shell explosion, uranium is discharged by fire into the air in the form of oxidised particles, which can be dispersed over a radius of several kilometres. Gamma ray ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Surface Ocean Acidification studies using Ships Of Opportunity

    Ships of Opportunity Ships of opportunity (SOOP) are used as a platform for cost-efficient collection of environmental data, Ferrybox. The SOOP network operated by NIVA cover the majority of the Norwegian coastline (from Germany (54N ) in the South to Svalbard (78N) in the North. This network is used in the national OA monitoring program. Globally, SOOPs are used for pCO2 measurements and ...


    By Franatech GmbH

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