surface measurement Articles

  • Surface Water Monitoring - Case Study

    Safe operation of a Water Treatment Plant (WTP) requires careful monitoring of the water supply influent to the plant, as a guard for any substances entering the treatment works that could negatively impact treated water quality in the distribution system. One aspect of water quality that has recently garnered more attention from authorities and utilities is Natural Organic Matter (NOM), which ...


    By MANTECH Inc.

  • 3 Scientific Tools to Help You Better Understand Your Water Quality

    There are many ways of testing and understanding your water quality with online scientific tools and models. One such resource is the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) project run by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The project, which was founded in 1991 to develop reliable information about water sources to support decisions on water quality management ...

  • Why You Should Monitor Groundwater?

    What is groundwater? Groundwater is water that is stored below the earth’s surface. When rain or other sources of water come into contact with the ground, the majority of it travels below the surface. Though much of this moisture is then absorbed by plants or returned to the atmosphere (through infiltration), some water will travel deeper beneath the surface – where it ...


    By Aquaread Limited

  • Why are we monitoring nutrients at different depths?

    Recently, LG Sonic introduced the MPC-Lab, an innovative monitoring buoy that can monitor algae, physico-chemical variables, and even nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus in near real-time and at different depths in a body of water. Combined with our other monitoring tools, this system offers a unique way to detect the spatial and temporal patterns of nutrient concentrations which play a ...


    By LG Sonic

  • Automated Measurement of Slurry Surface Settlement

    An automated float method for measuring slurry surface settlement is described. The system consists of a Perspex float which is denser than water but lighter than the slurry into which it penetrates slightly and floats on the slurry/water interface. Settlement of this float is then automatically tracked using an LVDT. Comparison with direct cathetometer measurement demonstrates that except for ...


    By ASTM International

  • A Device for the Measurement of Sub-Surface Ground Vibrations

    A reliable measurement of free-field stress waves from transient loading has several important applications, for example, in the design of effective wave barriers to protect sensitive equipment and in the design of underground protective structures against explosive loading, to name a few. The characteristics of a stress wave are highly dependent on the energy source and the soil medium through ...


    By ASTM International

  • Measurements of Methane Emissions and Surface Methane Oxidation at Landfills: WR1125

    Methane emissions from landfill were estimated to account for around 3% of the UK‟s total greenhouse gas emissions in 2009. The reported figure for methane emissions from landfill in the UK represents 41.5% of all UK methane emissions. The IPCC guidelines indicate that measurement of methane emissions is necessary to validate models and to provide confidence in country specific model ...

  • Surface roughness vision measurement in different ambient light conditions

    Machine vision method was used to measure the surface roughness for different Φ38 mm grinding axes in different ambient light conditions. To analyse the effect of ambient light, a method based on the grey-level co-occurrence matrix was applied at the first step. Then, a new calculation method was proposed to minimise the effect of ambient light during measurement. At the calibration stage, ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Surface ozone measurements and meteorological influences in the urban atmosphere of Istanbul

    Hourly measurements of ozone concentration in the urban atmosphere of Istanbul were carried out from February 1998 to July 1999. An assessment of the annual variations and relationships of ozone concentrations and meteorological variables was made. Annual variations were first examined without considering meteorological variables, and meteorological influences on ozone seasonal values were then ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Measuring carbon dioxide (CO2) along ocean surfaces case study

    Customer: Confidential Application: A research team needed to study the levels and variations of one of the major greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO2) along the ocean surfaces. The research team required CO2 analysers to be installed in commercial ocean liners to monitor the “dry” level of ...


    By Ecotech Pty Ltd

  • Dynamic rotary torque measurement using surface acoustic waves

    The subject of torque measurement has previously been addressed extensively. Most of the existing transducers either rely on low voltage analogue systems (e.g. conventional resistive strain gauge) or complicated mechanical assemblies by physically assessing displacement, i.e. optical systems. This paper identifies a new, potentially low cost, non-contact, frequency domain strain torque sensor1 ...


    By Sensor Technology Ltd

  • Some thoughts on in-situ flux measurement in the atmospheric surface layer

    Due to its complexity, the state of a turbulent atmosphere can only be described using statistical quantities such as means, variances, and covariances. Computation of these statistical quantities, particularly those of higher order, must be done with considerable care. This is particularly true if the statistics are used to depict heat and momentum fluxes. This note contains considerations that ...

  • Measurements of air–surface exchange rates of volatile organic compounds

    Vertical gradients of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured over a maize field and a soybean field in 1995 and 1996, respectively, in the Lower Coastal Plains of North Carolina. The measurements over the maize field were conducted in its early growth period, during May 1995, and the measurements over the soybean field were conducted in its middle and later growth periods during July ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Phosphorus control protects surface waters

    Phosphorus is the decisive factor for excessive algae and plant growth in water bodies, that’s why quality standards require reductions in the amount of phosphorus released from wastewater treatment plants into rivers and lakes. In recent years, the outlet limit values have not only been reduced on national levels. Depending on the vulnerability of ecosystems, especially low target values ...


    By Endress Hauser AG

  • InAs nanostructures on polar GaAs surfaces

    InAs nanostructures were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs (111)B and (211)B substrates at various growth temperatures between 450°C and 530°C. Their structural properties were studied by atomic force microscopy. For the (111)B grown nanostructures, the formation of self-aligned InAs quantum dashes was revealed, which in some cases took the form of nanowires. In the (211)B case, the shape ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • A preliminary analysis of measurements from a near-field pollutants dispersion campaign in a stratified surface layer

    In order to study pollutants dispersion in a stably stratified surface layer at small scales, a pollutants dispersion field experiment programme is being conducted on the site SIRTA in the southern suburb of Paris. In a preliminary campaign held during the winter of 2012 with continuous gas releases, we had 12 ultrasonic anemometers measuring wind velocity and temperature at 10 Hz, and six ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • A smartphone camera for the structure from motion reconstruction for measuring soil surface variations and soil loss due to erosion

    The suitability of a smartphone camera for the structure from motion (SfM) reconstruction for monitoring variations in soil surface characteristics and soil loss originated by a low intensity erosive event was evaluated. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) was used to validate the SfM model. Two surveys of the soil surface, one before and one after the rainfall event, were carried out for SfM and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Data Requirements for Ground Water, Surface Water, and Leachate

    It is common for ground water to be contaminated with the water soluble substances found in overlying soils. Many of the required data elements are similar, e.g., pH, TOC, BOD, COD, oil and grease, contaminant identification and quantification, and soil and aquifer characterization. Additional water quality monitoring data elements include hardness, ammonia, total dissolved solids, and metals ...

  • Determination of uranium concentration in surface soil samples of Iran

    The use of uranium-tipped antitank shells during the Iraq war (2003) caused serious concerns in Iran and the international media over possible contamination of the Iranian environment and consequent long-term health effects. After a shell explosion, uranium is discharged by fire into the air in the form of oxidised particles, which can be dispersed over a radius of several kilometres. Gamma ray ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Chlorine Theory & Measurement

    Chlorine, dissolved in liquid is one of the most effective and economical semi-killers for the treatment of water to make it potable or safe to drink. Chlorine's powerful disinfectant qualities come from its ability to bond with and destroy the outer surfaces of bacteria and viruses. Drinking water chlorination is one of the most widely used methods to safeguard chinking water supplies. In ...


    By IC Controls Ltd.

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