surface water drinking water Articles

  • Presence and risk assessment of pharmaceuticals in surface water and drinking water

    Trace amounts of pharmaceuticals have been detected in surface waters in the nano- to microgram per liter range, and in drinking water in the nanogram/L range. The environmental risks of pharmaceuticals in surface waters have been evaluated and generally found to be low if the wastewater is treated before release to the environment. The human health risks of trace amounts of pharmaceuticals in ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • The Future of Drinking Water

    Predicted future growth in population numbers and rising sea levels mean demand for drinking water will continue to increase just as the natural availability of freshwater decreases. It is likely that brackish groundwater will be an important source of drinking water in the future, but the current methods used to produce fresh water from this source are expensive in terms of their energy use and ...


    By Boode Waterwell Systems

  • Water, water everywhere: But is there enough to drink?

    Original story at MIT News At MIT, experts address the challenges of supplying clean, safe water to a growing world population. The challenge of supplying clean, safe drinking water to an expanding world population comes down to money, MIT economist Franklin Fisher ...

  • VSEP treats well and surface water to provide ultra clean drinking water

    New Logic Research manufactures a proprietary vibrating membrane filtration system that is uniquely suited for treatment of commercial and domestic drinking water. The use of a vibrating membrane mechanism to avoid membrane fouling is new and is just the kind of improvement needed to make the use of membrane filtration an effective and economical treatment solution for drinking water. New Logic ...


    By New Logic Research, Inc.

  • Linking drugs of abuse in wastewater to contamination of surface and drinking water

    The concentrations of 17 drugs of abuse, including cocaine, several amphetamines, opioid drugs, and 2 metabolites—benzoylecgonine, a metabolite of cocaine, and 2‐ethylidene‐1,5‐dimethyl‐3,3‐diphenylpyrolidine, a metabolite of methadone—were investigated in an urban watershed that is heavily impacted by discharges of municipal wastewater. The artificial sweetener sucralose was also monitored as ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Preparation and surface modification of hollow fibre membranes for drinking water disinfection and water reclamation

    Polysulphone hollow fibres were spun according to phase inversion process under different conditions by extrusion of dimethylformamide solution of the polymer through double orifice spinneret using water or water-DMF mixture as gelation medium. The membrane surface was modified by in situ interfacial polymerisation of m-phenylenediamine with trimesoyl chloride. The nominal molecular weight ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Drinking Water Treatment Process

    Most drinking water comes from a surface water source, such as a lake or river, or a groundwater source, such as a well or spring. This water requires treatment before it can be safely consumed; the level to which the water is treated depends on the source of the water and also on federal regulations. In the United States, for example, the Safe Drinking Water Act was created by the Environmental ...


    By Brentwood Industries, Inc.

  • Fluoride levels in drinking water and other surface water of an industrial area belt of Orissa State in India

    The fluorosis problem along with endemicity characterised by high degree of industries releasing fluorides into the environment was studied to quantify the fluoride levels in the different water sources. The analysis showed that out of 17 tube wells monitored, three (17.65%) showed higher fluoride levels. Among the open well monitored, 17 (58.54%) had higher fluoride content out of 41. The ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Assessing protozoan risks for surface drinking water supplies in Nova Scotia, Canada

    Protozoa, such as Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia, pose a human health risk when present in drinking water. To minimize health risks, the Nova Scotia Treatment Standards for surface water and groundwater under the direct influence of surface water require a 3-log reduction for Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts. This study ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Safe drinking water and waterborne outbreaks

    The present work compiles a review on drinking waterborne outbreaks, with the perspective of production and distribution of microbiologically safe water, during 2000–2014. The outbreaks are categorised in raw water contamination, treatment deficiencies and distribution network failure. The main causes for contamination were: for groundwater, intrusion of animal faeces or wastewater due to ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Surface Water Monitoring - Case Study

    Safe operation of a Water Treatment Plant (WTP) requires careful monitoring of the water supply influent to the plant, as a guard for any substances entering the treatment works that could negatively impact treated water quality in the distribution system. One aspect of water quality that has recently garnered more attention from authorities and utilities is Natural Organic Matter (NOM), which ...


    By MANTECH Inc.

  • Monitoring Nitrates in Drinking Water and Wastewater

    Nitrate is present in high levels in wastewater due in part to the high nitrates present in human sewage but also from some types of industrial effluent entering the municipal sewer system. Nitrate is also a very common contaminant in both surface water and ground water. Nitrate occurs naturally in source water as a result of decaying plants. However, there are other manmade sources of ...


    By Real Tech Inc.

  • Report to Congressional Requestors: Drinking Water

    Every day in the United States, at least 2 billion gallons of fluids are injected into over 172,000 wells to enhance oil and gas production, or to dispose of fluids brought to the surface during the extraction of oil and gas resources. These wells are subject to regulation to protect drinking water sources under EPA’s UIC class II program and approved state class II programs. Because much ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • The Benefits of Biological Treatment for Drinking Water

    The biological treatment of drinking water is undertaken using both organic and inorganic contaminants, and can be used to treat groundwater and surface water. These contaminants, contrary to what the name implies, are applied to strip away the factors that make the water unsafe for drinking until it is potable—meaning drinkable. If you would like to learn more about the benefits of ...

  • Crossville, TN, municipal drinking water

    The Situation: The City of Crossville, Tennessee, needed to address increasingly strict regulations on the use of gas chlorine to disinfect their community’s water. The Solution: By switching from gas chlorine to MIOX mixed oxidants, the City has reduced operational costs, improved residual durability, reduced byproduct formation, produced longer filter ...

  • Rapid Quantification of Perfluorinated Compounds in Drinking and Surface Water Using LC-MS/MS

    As contaminants of emerging concern, research on PFCs is ongoing to determine the impacts of these materials on human health and the environment. A CDC study detected four of these analytes in >98% of serum samples representative of the general US population above age twelve. Low level analysis of these compounds is challenging due to their ubiquitous presence in the laboratory and analytical ...

  • Feasibility assessment of surface water disinfection by ultrafiltration

    Ultrafiltration (UF) has been presented as an alternative to chemical disinfection to obtain safe drinking water, for its ability to remove microbiological contamination. Hollow-fiber UF membranes are designed as an effective barrier to microorganisms, for their high manufacturing integrity and for the ‘potting’ method adopted to seal fibers to the feeding/extraction manifold. ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Trihalomethane formation in ozonated and chlorinated surface water

    Abstract The relatively recent discovery of disinfection by-products has driven the main regulatory organisms to set maximum contaminant levels for certain substances in drinking water. Trihalomethanes can be deemed as the most important group of by-products in chlorinated surface waters. The present work has focused on trihalomethane formation in a full-scale water treatment plant. We studied ...


    By Springer

  • Influence of Copper Mine on Surface Water Quality

    Aras water basin is located in northwest of Iran. Sungun mine which is the largest open-cast copper mine of Iran is located in this region and is in the primary stages of extraction. The influence of mining activity on the quality of regional surface water has been taken in to consideration in this study. Accordingly, sampling was done from 5 local streams in the study area. In order to consider ...

  • Oxidation and volatilization of bromide by electrolysis in drinking water

    To reduce the concentrations of brominated disinfection by-products, a process is presented here which removes bromide from a widely used surface water source, the California State Water Project (SWP). The process consists of oxidizing bromide to bromine and volatilizing the bromine. SWP water was passed through this unit under various conditions and the bromide was oxidized and volatilized under ...


    By IWA Publishing

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