surface water drinking water Articles

  • Nitrate Analysis of Water Samples Using a Benchtop UV-Vis Spectrophotometer

    Nitrogen is naturally found in groundwater and surface water in the form of nitrate, nitrite, or ammonium. The EPA has established a maximum contaminant level of nitrate-nitrogen in potable water of 10ppm. This application presents results of UV-Vis analysis of nitrate concentrations in drinking water, ground water, and industrial wastewater, showing that the manual colorimetric method is ...

  • Presence and risk assessment of pharmaceuticals in surface water and drinking water

    Trace amounts of pharmaceuticals have been detected in surface waters in the nano- to microgram per liter range, and in drinking water in the nanogram/L range. The environmental risks of pharmaceuticals in surface waters have been evaluated and generally found to be low if the wastewater is treated before release to the environment. The human health risks of trace amounts of pharmaceuticals in ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • VSEP treats well and surface water to provide ultra clean drinking water

    New Logic Research manufactures a proprietary vibrating membrane filtration system that is uniquely suited for treatment of commercial and domestic drinking water. The use of a vibrating membrane mechanism to avoid membrane fouling is new and is just the kind of improvement needed to make the use of membrane filtration an effective and economical treatment solution for drinking water. New Logic ...


    By New Logic Research, Inc.

  • Water, water everywhere: But is there enough to drink?

    Original story at MIT News At MIT, experts address the challenges of supplying clean, safe water to a growing world population. The challenge of supplying clean, safe drinking water to an expanding world population comes down to money, MIT economist Franklin Fisher ...

  • The Future of Drinking Water

    Predicted future growth in population numbers and rising sea levels mean demand for drinking water will continue to increase just as the natural availability of freshwater decreases. It is likely that brackish groundwater will be an important source of drinking water in the future, but the current methods used to produce fresh water from this source are expensive in terms of their energy use and ...


    By Boode Waterwell Systems

  • Assessing protozoan risks for surface drinking water supplies in Nova Scotia, Canada

    Protozoa, such as Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia, pose a human health risk when present in drinking water. To minimize health risks, the Nova Scotia Treatment Standards for surface water and groundwater under the direct influence of surface water require a 3-log reduction for Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts. This study ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Linking drugs of abuse in wastewater to contamination of surface and drinking water

    The concentrations of 17 drugs of abuse, including cocaine, several amphetamines, opioid drugs, and 2 metabolites—benzoylecgonine, a metabolite of cocaine, and 2‐ethylidene‐1,5‐dimethyl‐3,3‐diphenylpyrolidine, a metabolite of methadone—were investigated in an urban watershed that is heavily impacted by discharges of municipal wastewater. The artificial sweetener sucralose was also monitored as ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Report to Congressional Requestors: Drinking Water

    Every day in the United States, at least 2 billion gallons of fluids are injected into over 172,000 wells to enhance oil and gas production, or to dispose of fluids brought to the surface during the extraction of oil and gas resources. These wells are subject to regulation to protect drinking water sources under EPA’s UIC class II program and approved state class II programs. Because much ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Safe drinking water and waterborne outbreaks

    The present work compiles a review on drinking waterborne outbreaks, with the perspective of production and distribution of microbiologically safe water, during 2000–2014. The outbreaks are categorised in raw water contamination, treatment deficiencies and distribution network failure. The main causes for contamination were: for groundwater, intrusion of animal faeces or wastewater due to ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • The Benefits of Biological Treatment for Drinking Water

    The biological treatment of drinking water is undertaken using both organic and inorganic contaminants, and can be used to treat groundwater and surface water. These contaminants, contrary to what the name implies, are applied to strip away the factors that make the water unsafe for drinking until it is potable—meaning drinkable. If you would like to learn more about the benefits of ...

  • Monitoring Nitrates in Drinking Water and Wastewater

    Nitrate is present in high levels in wastewater due in part to the high nitrates present in human sewage but also from some types of industrial effluent entering the municipal sewer system. Nitrate is also a very common contaminant in both surface water and ground water. Nitrate occurs naturally in source water as a result of decaying plants. However, there are other manmade sources of ...


    By Real Tech Inc.

  • Fluoride levels in drinking water and other surface water of an industrial area belt of Orissa State in India

    The fluorosis problem along with endemicity characterised by high degree of industries releasing fluorides into the environment was studied to quantify the fluoride levels in the different water sources. The analysis showed that out of 17 tube wells monitored, three (17.65%) showed higher fluoride levels. Among the open well monitored, 17 (58.54%) had higher fluoride content out of 41. The ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Preparation and surface modification of hollow fibre membranes for drinking water disinfection and water reclamation

    Polysulphone hollow fibres were spun according to phase inversion process under different conditions by extrusion of dimethylformamide solution of the polymer through double orifice spinneret using water or water-DMF mixture as gelation medium. The membrane surface was modified by in situ interfacial polymerisation of m-phenylenediamine with trimesoyl chloride. The nominal molecular weight ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Crossville, TN, municipal drinking water

    The Situation: The City of Crossville, Tennessee, needed to address increasingly strict regulations on the use of gas chlorine to disinfect their community’s water. The Solution: By switching from gas chlorine to MIOX mixed oxidants, the City has reduced operational costs, improved residual durability, reduced byproduct formation, produced longer filter ...


    By MIOX Corporation

  • Understanding the 3 Types of Arsenic Removal Used for Wastewater

    With the onset of the Industrial Revolution and the development of internal combustion engines and new manufacturing technologies, fresh water became an essential raw material not only for production, but for cooling purposes in manufacturing processes. However, when fresh water is used in an industrial process, it creates industrial wastewater composed of a variety of chemicals and other raw ...

  • The effect of the surface-to-volume contact ratio on the biomass production potential of the pipe products in contact with drinking water

    The biomass production potential (BPP) test is a semi-static test for assessment of microbial growth promoting properties of construction products in contact with drinking water (CPDW). In 2003 the test was selected for incorporation into a scheme for acceptance of CPDW in the framework of implementation of the European Construction Product Directive and Drinking Water Directive. The pass/fail ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Rapid Quantification of Perfluorinated Compounds in Drinking and Surface Water Using LC-MS/MS

    As contaminants of emerging concern, research on PFCs is ongoing to determine the impacts of these materials on human health and the environment. A CDC study detected four of these analytes in >98% of serum samples representative of the general US population above age twelve. Low level analysis of these compounds is challenging due to their ubiquitous presence in the laboratory and analytical ...

  • Comparison of three methods to concentrate Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts from surface and drinking waters

    In this study, three methods commercialized by Pall (Envirochek HV), Idexx (FiltaMax) and Whatman (Cryptest) to concentrate Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts from surface and drinking waters were compared according to the EPA standard protocol. Twenty litres of surface and 100 litres of drinking waters were inoculated with 103 (oo)cysts before being concentrated by ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Feasibility assessment of surface water disinfection by ultrafiltration

    Ultrafiltration (UF) has been presented as an alternative to chemical disinfection to obtain safe drinking water, for its ability to remove microbiological contamination. Hollow-fiber UF membranes are designed as an effective barrier to microorganisms, for their high manufacturing integrity and for the ‘potting’ method adopted to seal fibers to the feeding/extraction manifold. ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Trihalomethane formation in ozonated and chlorinated surface water

    Abstract The relatively recent discovery of disinfection by-products has driven the main regulatory organisms to set maximum contaminant levels for certain substances in drinking water. Trihalomethanes can be deemed as the most important group of by-products in chlorinated surface waters. The present work has focused on trihalomethane formation in a full-scale water treatment plant. We studied ...


    By Springer

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