surface water supply Articles

  • Adaptation of surface water supply to climate change in central Iran

    Optimal reservoir operation changes and adaptation strategies for the Zayandeh-Rud River Basin's surface water supply system are examined for a changing climate during the 2015–2044 period. On average, the monthly temperature in the basin is expected to increase by 0.46–0.76 °C and annual precipitation is expected to decrease by 14–38% with climate ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Removal of DOC and DBP Precursors from a Surface Water Supply

    Background: The 2.5 MLD Airey’s Inlet Water Treatment Plant is conventional alum coagulation, sludge blanket clarification, filtration WTP. It sources raw water from the 514 ML Painkalac Dam situated in the Angahook State Park This raw water is soft and high in colour and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). After heavy rainfalls, colour and DOC content are known to further increase along with a spike ...


    By Orica Australia Pty Ltd

  • Augmenting Water Supply Systems

    Direct use of recycled water to augment urban water supply systems entails pumping water into the distribution system or blending with the conventional supply at the water treatment plant. The recycled water needs to be treated to drinking water standards or better, including advanced treatment processes to remove trace organics and chemicals. The City of Windhoek in ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • River safe yield with the constraint of a contracted rectangular weir for surface water supply

    Aydin et al. introduced the weir velocity concept in 2011 for discharge measurement in contracted rectangular sharp-crested weirs. Gharahjeh et al. further reinforced this formula in 2015 to allow discharge to be computed using only weir velocity and crest width. These newly introduced expressions are tested and demonstrated to determine surface water yield of Tapah River in ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Assessing protozoan risks for surface drinking water supplies in Nova Scotia, Canada

    Protozoa, such as Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia, pose a human health risk when present in drinking water. To minimize health risks, the Nova Scotia Treatment Standards for surface water and groundwater under the direct influence of surface water require a 3-log reduction for Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts. This study ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • The impact of projected changes in climate variability on the reliability of surface water supply in Scotland

    Projected changes in precipitation and evapotranspiration under climate change and their impacts on the reliability of six water storage reservoirs and two river intake schemes in Scotland are examined. A conceptual rainfall–runoff model was used to simulate catchment runoff which, together with evapotranspiration, served as inputs into a reservoir model. Outputs from a regional climate ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Demand management in urban water supply

    Since the 1930s, the drinking water supply of the Rabat-Casablanca coastal area has depended on water transfers from groundwater, from Maamora, and surface water, from the Bou Regreg Basin. Assessments carried out during the 1980s, based on patterns of water use at that time, showed that by 2010, transfers ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Evaluation of water demand and supply in the south of Iraq

    This paper presents results from the first study that focuses on water resources availability and demand for different purposes in the four oil-rich provinces of southern Iraq. The region accounts for 23% of the surface area and 18% of the country's population, but holds 88% of its oil. A water shortage of 430 Mm3/year for 2010 is estimated for this region where irrigation accounts for 81% of ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Integrated local water supply plan

    Client: City of Wichita, Kan. Completion Date: June 2001  Services Provided Water supply planning Evaluation of alternatives Cost estimating Economic comparison Environmental studies (NEPA) Program management Hydrogeologic engineering Water quality monitoring ...


    By Burns & McDonnell

  • Surface Water Monitoring - Case Study

    Safe operation of a Water Treatment Plant (WTP) requires careful monitoring of the water supply influent to the plant, as a guard for any substances entering the treatment works that could negatively impact treated water quality in the distribution system. One aspect of water quality that has recently garnered more attention from authorities and utilities is Natural Organic Matter (NOM), which ...


    By MANTECH Inc.

  • In Situ Biological Treatment for Ground Water, Surface Water, and Leachate

    The main advantage of in situ treatment is that it allows ground water to be treated without being brought to the surface, resulting in significant cost savings. In situ treatment, however, generally requires longer time periods, and there is less certainty about the uniformity of treatment because of the variability in aquifer characteristics and because the efficacy of the process is more ...

  • Water crisis: the metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia, regional water supply conflict

    Many large population centres are currently facing considerable difficulties with planning issues to secure future water supplies, as a result of water allocation and environmental issues, litigation, and political dogma. A classic case occurs in the metropolitan Atlanta area, which is a rapidly growing, large population centre that relies solely on surface water for supply. Lake Lanier ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Groundwater use and policy in community water supply in Finland

    Selection between ground and surface water in community water supply has been one of the key strategic questions in Finland since the early 1900s. After some cities failed to find reliable groundwater sources, many turned to surface waters. Since the 1950s the use of groundwater and artificial recharged groundwater have continuously increased. Presently their use is promoted by the government and ...


    By Springer

  • Evaluation of mutagenic activity of organic micropollutants present in surface waters

    Surface water to be employed in drinking water supplies can be characterised both by chemical analysis and mutagenic activity in order to detect genotoxic compounds present as environmental pollutants or produced by drinking water treatments. In our experimental conditions, only two samples out of seven raw and four processed water extracts (Amberlite XAD-2 concentration) gave mutagenic effects ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Water supply in Jordan under drought conditions

    This paper discusses the Mujib Dam reservoir's storage during the drought years of 2007–2009. It has been concluded that the policy of unplanned water release during the dry year 2007, when little attention was paid to the possibility of a continuation of the drought, contributed to the remarkable lack of surface water storage during 2008, another dry year. For better management and planning, ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • MFE slipline of water supply case study

    HOBAS Under Live Runway When the main water supply line at the McAllen, Texas, airport was rehabilitated using HOBAS pipe, it brought new meaning to the phrase “slipline live.” McAllen-Miller International Airport (MFE) is the primary business airport of deep South Texas and Northeast Mexico. To accommodate the future needs of the greater Rio Grande Valley, a master ...


    By Hobas Pipe USA

  • Salting icy roads affects water supplies

    It’s basic chemistry: Saline water’s freezing point is much lower than fresh water’s, which can help keep ice from forming on roads. To reduce winter accidents, municipal and state workers often apply salt and other compounds to icy roads, because if not accidents start to happen and people end up in need cash in emergency. Unfortunately, this may have unintended consequences ...


    By Fluence Corporation

  • Screening of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting compounds in water supplies of Cyprus

    Cyprus is currently the leading country in antibiotic consumption among all European Union member countries and is likely to have a high consumption of pharmaceuticals overall. This reconnaissance type of project sought to investigate the occurrence of 16 pharmaceuticals, six known or suspected endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), two flame retardants, one insect repellant, and one fragrance ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in surface water supply of Campinas, Southeast Brazil

    Surface water contaminated by domestic sewage discharges is a potential source of pathogens, including protozoa. During 2005–2006, the source water (Atibaia River) of the Surface Water Treatment Plant (WTP) of Campinas city, São Paulo, Brazil was sampled to obtain an assessment of Cryptosporidium oocyst and Giardia cyst concentrations. Calcium carbonate flocculation (CCF) and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Assessing interactions between groundwater and surface water in a Pampean stream

    In the south of Córdoba (Argentina), groundwater from the unconfined aquifer, presents scarce suitability due to high values of salts, sulfates, arsenic and fluorides. This situation makes it necessary to explore other possibilities, for example, conjunctive use of groundwater and surface water. The objective of this work was to describe the dynamic and geochemical relationships between ...


    By IWA Publishing

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