total chlorine Articles

  • What’s the difference between free and total chlorine?

    The element Chlorine exists as a gas Cl2, when this is mixed with water it forms hypochlorous acid (HOCl) which is the disinfecting agent; Cl2 + H2O HCl + HOCl This HOCl can partly disassociate to form the hypochlorite ion ...


    By Camlab Limited

  • The effect of chlorine and combined chlorine/UV treatment on coliphages in drinking water disinfection

    Chlorine disinfection is a globally used method to ensure the safety of drinking water. However, it has not always been successful against viruses and, therefore, it is important to find new methods to disinfect water. Seventeen different coliphages were isolated from the treated municipal wastewater. These coliphages and MS2 were treated with different dosages of chlorine in drinking water, ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Analysis of PCBs in emission samples: non ortho, mono-ortho and homolog totals by level of chlorination

    IntroductionPolychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one of the most widespread persistent organic pollutants, identified in every component of the global ecosystem. A production of approximately 2 * 10 9 Kg technical PCB occurred form 1930 to the late 1970 1 and the total amount released into the environment is estimated in 370. 000 2 tonnes. Twelve of the possible 209 PCBs are non- and mono-ortho ...


    By Monitoring Systems GmbH

  • Controlling the addition of Chlorine into a Process

    There are several methods for controlling the addition of chlorine into a process. These methods include flow proportional injection, ORP (oxidation reduction potential) or a residual chlorine analyzer. Each method measures a different process characteristic. Depending on the specific type of process being controlled, there generally is a best choice for controlling the injection of either ...


    By Walchem, Iwaki America Inc.

  • In Situ Bioremediation of Chlorinated Solvents

    ABSTRACT: In situ bioremediation is ongoing at a former manufacturing facility in Portland, Oregon.  Shallow groundwater at the site was impacted by chlorinated solvents, primarily trichloroethene and degradation products cis-1,2-dichloroethene and vinyl chloride.  In situ chemical oxidation treatment was completed in 2003 via the injection of sodium permanganate in source ...


    By EOS Remediation, LLC

  • Analysis of PCBs in emission samples: non ortho, mono-ortho and homolog totals by level of chlorination

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one of the most widespread persistent organic pollutants, identified in every component of the global ecosystem. A production of approximately 2 * 10 9 Kg technical PCB occurred form 1930 to the late 1970 1 and the total amount released into the environment is estimated in 370. 000 2 tonnes. Twelve of the possible 209 PCBs are non- and mono-ortho substituted ...


    By Monitoring Systems GmbH

  • Chlorine Disinfection of Blended Wastewater Effluents

     KeywordsBlended Wastewater, Disinfection IntroductionFlow to publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) increases during wet weather events, due to intrusion of storm water into sanitary collection systems and use of combined sewer systems. When such flows exceed the hydraulic capacity of a POTW alternate flow management techniques must be employed to ensure that ...

  • International Chlorine Header Project

    Project: CHLORINE HEADERS AND TRANSFER DUCT REPLACEMENT Client: Major chlor-alkali plant in the Middle East General Scope: All four chlorine gas collection headers, each one 24” through 42” diameter, and all 54” diameter chlorine gas transfer duct from headers to chlorine coolers was installed in ...


    By Fibrex Corporation

  • Chlorination Disinfection Requirements for Membrane Bioreactor Permeate

     ABSTRACT The membrane bioreactor (MBR) process is typically designed and operated to produce a fully nitrified, high quality effluent (permeate) that makes it possible to use free chlorine for disinfection. In California, regulations (Title 22) require a minimum CT value of 450 mg-min/L or 5-log virus inactivation when chlorine is used to produce “disinfected tertiary effluent.” In ...

  • Monochloramine and total haloamine decay after a short prechlorination time in the presence of bromide

    The Chlorine-Ammonia Process was developed recently as a preoxidation process to minimize the formation of bromate during ozonation of the waters containing a significant bromide concentration. Chlorine is added first followed by ammonia 5–10 minutes later, with the goal of sequestering bromide in monobromamine during the subsequent ozonation step. The goal of this research was to improve the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Sequential chlorination for reclaimed water disinfection

    ABSTRACT The Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County (Districts) operate seven tertiary water reclamation plants (WRPs) with a combined treatment capacity of approximately 200 million gallons per day (MGD). Chloramination is used at these WRPs for effluent disinfection. It was recently discovered that chloramination results in formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), a compound with ...

  • Chlorinated solvents: methylene chloride and TCE

    Introduction This paper presents the results of a scaled and phased approach to source remediation of high concentrations of recalcitrant chlorinated solvent compounds via soil vapor extraction (SVE) and vapor treatment at a Site in Southern California. Phase I began with refrigerated condensation (C3) in order to achieve high mass removal rates to reduce lifecycle costs and time ...

  • On-Site Chlorine Generation Feasibility Study

     ABSTRACT Gaseous chlorine has been effectively used for disinfection in drinking water and wastewater treatment for decades. While various regulatory programs have placed numerous restrictions on the uses of this chemical due to its hazardous nature, recent focus on the possibility of a terrorist attack at a drinking water or wastewater facility, has underscored the potential hazard ...

  • Landfill remediation with refrigerants and chlorinated solvents

    PROJECT DESCRIPTION Between 1979 and 1980, industrial and hazardous wastes were disposed of at the Site in a series of unlined pits, each of which was used for a particular type of waste disposal. It is reported based on evaluations of manifests that approximately 3.4 million gallons of hazardous liquid wastes and between 3,700 and 4,100 tons of solid wastes were disposed of in the pits ...

  • Chlorine gas protection - Case Study

    Application As part of a scheme to bring safe drinking water to 1.5 million people in Omdurman City, part of Greater Khartoum, Biwater International was appointed by the Government of Sudan to undertake a major turnkey design and construction project. Chlorine is the conventional means of water disinfection, so Biwater brought in ERG to design and manufacture the emergency gas ...

  • Probabilistic exposure assessment to total trihalomethanes in drinking water: an EVT method

    It was proved that some adverse reproductive outcomes are associated with the exposure to trihalomethanes. We define the exposure as the probability with which the total trihalomethanes concentration in drinking water exceeds the maximum level. We apply the Peaks of Threshold model of Extreme Value Theory into assessing the exposure risk for the drinking water in Japanese distribution systems. ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Source area bioremediation of chlorinated solvents with edible oils emulsion

    Groundwater in a sand and gravel aquifer beneath this active manufacturing facility was contaminated with high concentrations of 1,1,1- Trichloroethane (1TCA) and cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cDCE), and their degradation products including ethene and ethane. An acclimated anaerobic microbial population was present at the site, but was limited by the availability of carbon. Emulsified edible oil was ...


    By Terra Systems, Inc. (TSI)

  • Petroleum hydrocarbon and chlorinated solvent case study

    Project Description The site is an active fueling terminal located in Van Nuys, California USA. The site has 1underground storage tanks of petroleum fuel as well as numerous above ground storage tanks for containment of various hydrocarbon and chlorinated solvent compounds. Site Geology Soils at the location consist primarily of interbedded layers of silt, ...

  • Effect of total organic carbon and aquatic humic substances on the occurrence of lead at the tap

    Homes with lead service lines (LSLs) in the City of Brandon, Manitoba, Canada, were found to exceed the provincial standard of 10 μg/L for lead in drinking water. Solids identified by X-ray diffraction of LSL scale were Pb5O8 and PbO2, indicating that lead(II) solids in the LSL scale have been oxidized to lead(IV) solids by free chlorine residuals. Natural organic matter (NOM) ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • In Situ Bioremediation of Chlorinated Solvents: A Case Study

    In situ bioremediation is ongoing at a former manufacturing facility in Portland, Oregon. Shallow groundwater at the site was impacted by chlorinated solvents, primarily trichloroethene and degradation products cis-1,2-dichloroethene and vinyl chloride. In situ chemical oxidation treatment was completed in 2003 via the injection of sodium permanganate in source areas. Subsequent stimulation of in ...


    By EOS Remediation, LLC

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