total water hardness Articles

  • New total hardness (Calcium and Magnesium) automated titration method case study

    MANTECH INC. is a leading manufacturer of automated multi-parameter, titration, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) laboratory and process instruments. MANTECH developed the first automated software based titration system in the world. By listening to our environmental customers, MANTECH understood the need to develop a new total hardness (calcium and magnesium) ...


    By MANTECH

  • Maintenance To-Do: Coil Cleaning

    A coil-cleaning program should be an integral part of maintaining some kinds of process cooling equipment. Most people think of coil cleaning as a building or facility prepares to turn on the air-conditioners for another season. Admittedly, spring is a perfect time to put such cleaning and maintenance at the top of the to-do list. Condenser and evaporator coils are an integral part of HVAC ...


    By Evapco Inc.

  • A quick guide to oil analysis for engine test applications

    Reliability testing is a very important component of new engine development. Engineers need to fully understand and chart the engine lifetime performance under a variety of conditions before mass production may be considered. Many important performance data parameters are collected in real time through the many different types of sensors that are connected to the engine in the test cell and oil ...


    By Spectro Scientific

  • Scaling caused by hard water is one of nature’s expensive phenomenons.. But there is a totally natural solution

    Scaling caused by hard water is an expensive problem .. not only do significant financial costs arise trying to prevent it or  removing the effects of it but in addition there is a huge environmental; cost to many of the treatments used against it.! Water softeners put so much salt into the environment that they are now being banned in some parts of the USA. Chemicals, as we all know, are ...

  • `South Asian monsoon variations hard to fathom`

    Understanding how the South Asian monsoon will change in response to global warming  and resolving the uncertainties in projected changes are ‘demanding tasks’ for climate science, a review says. Current state-of-the-art general circulation models have difficulty simulating the regional ...


    By SciDev.Net

  • Sources of Groundwater in Crystalline Hard Rocks of Kandy Area, Sri Lanka

    Abstract: Hydrogeological investigations were carried out to obtain sufficient information on groundwater availability in the fractured metamorphic rocks in Kandy district of Sri Lanka. 47 boreholes were drilled with the average depth of 90 metres and 24 high yielding wells were selected and long term pumping tests were carried out for each well using standard methods. The calculated total of ...


  • Removal of DOC and its fractions from surface waters of the Canadian Prairie containing high levels of DOC and hardness

    In this paper removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and its fractions by chemical coagulation was studied. Raw water was collected from the Red River (Manitoba, Canada). This source water has a DOC concentration ranging from 8 to 12 mg L−1 and total hardness of about 400 mg L−1 CaCO3, which represents a typical surface water quality of the Canadian Prairie. ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Preliminary studies on removal of nitrate and hardness from ground water using polystyrene beads

    Ground water has emerged as the primary water deficiency reduction tool in most developing countries. Recently, the quality of ground water has deteriorated due to over-exploitation and contamination resulting from anthropogenic activities. A broad range of physical, inorganic and organic, bacteriological, and radioactive parameters are found in ground waters. The presence of nitrate and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Finding your way off the 303(d) list – a success story on the Harding Drain

    The Turlock Irrigation District (TID) provides irrigation water to agricultural lands in areas near Turlock, California. The Harding Drain, which is part of the TID system, is a constructed agricultural drain that collects and conveys discharges from several types of sources, including runoff from agricultural and urban areas and effluent discharges from the Turlock Regional Water Quality Control ...

  • Water analysis

    A complete tap water analysis includes the determination of the pH value, the alkalinity and the total water hardness. Both the pH measurement and the pH titration by means of a standard pH electrode suffer from several drawbacks. First, the response time of several minutes is too long and, above all, the stirring rate significantly influences the measured pH value. Unlike these standard pH ...


    By Metrohm AG

  • Water reuse technology trains for medium-level water

    Wastewater is considered as stable and substantial amount of alternative water resource. In case of South Korea, it is known that 73.2 percents of supplied water discharge 16 million m3/day of treated effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plants. Calculation simply tells that 0.58 billion m3/year can be available if only 10 percent of wastewater could be reused. In this study, a pilot MBR ...


    By Toray Chemical Korea

  • Manufacturer of Water Treatment Chemicals and Water Additives

    Water treatment is a process for treating sewage or modern wastewater and converting it into more acceptable form for a specific end-use. The end utilization of this treated water might be drinking, mechanical water supply, water system, waterway stream support, water diversion or numerous different uses, including being securely returned to nature. Water treatment expels ...


    By Water Chemicals

  • Data Requirements for Ground Water, Surface Water, and Leachate

    It is common for ground water to be contaminated with the water soluble substances found in overlying soils. Many of the required data elements are similar, e.g., pH, TOC, BOD, COD, oil and grease, contaminant identification and quantification, and soil and aquifer characterization. Additional water quality monitoring data elements include hardness, ammonia, total dissolved solids, and metals ...

  • The Rising Cost of Water

    There's a common economic paradox about the price tag on drinking water and value. Our current economic climate places prices on things predicated on scarcity and value. Water pricing is now more widespread, with the dual goal of expanding supply and encouraging more responsible use. So long as water remained abundant, the cheapness of drinking water is not likely to change. However, the price of ...

  • Methods of Water Purification

    This article is excerpted from 'Pure Water Handbook' published by Osmonics®, Inc. of Minnetonka, Minnesota USA and is printed with permission of Osmonics, Inc. Water treatment can be defined as any procedure or method used to alter the chemical composition or natural 'behavior' of a water supply. Water supplies are classified as either surface water or groundwater. The majority of public or ...

  • Benefits of an Eagle Water Treatment System

    Assessing your water issues is our specialty at Eagle Water Treatment.  With many years of combined experience within our team, Eagle Water Treatment Systems has the resources necessary to provide a premium experience within the water treatment industry. We specialize in water purification and water conditioning both for municipal and private water treatment needs. Our ...

  • Water Quality Analysis Safeguarding Families

    Water is intensely purified and treated by water authorities before being ready for thousands of families. Everybody expects clean and safe tap water when turning on their taps. A water quality analysis center in Shanghi, China excels in its water testing and analysis with fully automatic potentiometric titration. Traditional Water Quality Analysis In order to ensure water hygiene and safety ...


    By Mettler - Toledo Int. Inc

  • The mystery of electronic water treatment unveiled

    The problems of scale are well known to those living and working in "hard" water areas. Scale is the undesirable consequence of water supplies becoming super-saturated with dissolved minerals.  These problems are of greater significance if found in industrial water systems and commercial buildings. Scaling problems commonly occur, even in "soft" water areas, when a fluid stream is ...

  • Filter refurbishment program for Thames water in Berkhamstead

    Purpose of rental unit: To provide additional nitrification to works whilst trickling filters were refurbished Consent standard required: 3mg/l NH4 Total flow to the unit: 21l/s @ 1 hours retention (50 minutes is minimum retention to achieve nitrification) Unit supplied: 1 x Steel 1000pe wastewater treatment unit ...


    By WPL Ltd

  • On the Seasonal Changes in the Surface Water Chemistry of Museum Lake, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India

    The surface water chemistry of Thiruvananthapuram Museum Lake was carried out in the period of February 2013 to January 2014. Correlation study of the parameters and overall CCME WQI (Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water quality Index) was also prepared in the study for the lake water. The parameters analysed are cations such as Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+ and K+ and the anions like PO4-, ...


    By University of Tehran

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