toxic chemical Articles

  • Rapid Testing of Toxic Chemicals

    Untitled Document The measurement ...


  • Using FTIR spectroscopy to measure hydrocarbon pollution in water

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF’s 2015 Progress on Sanitation and Drinking Water report almost 700 million people around the world don’t have access to clean drinking water [1]. Poor water quality is beginning to return to the developed world too. The strain of population growth, intensified agricultural practices and continued industrial expansion have are ...


    By Specac Limited

  • How Tire Shredding Protects Wildlife

    One of the most revolutionary inventions in the history of mankind was the wheel, and the best upgrade to that invention was the rubber tire, which overcame the limitations of wooden or metal wheels and made it possible to have smooth rides at fast speeds. However, there is a significant drawback to using rubber tires: eventually, they get too worn out to be useful as tires anymore and have to ...


    By ECO Green Equipment

  • A quick guide to oil analysis for engine test applications

    Reliability testing is a very important component of new engine development. Engineers need to fully understand and chart the engine lifetime performance under a variety of conditions before mass production may be considered. Many important performance data parameters are collected in real time through the many different types of sensors that are connected to the engine in the test cell and oil ...


    By Spectro Scientific

  • USE OF FISH EMBRYO TOXICITY TESTS FOR THE PREDICTION OF ACUTE FISH TOXICITY TO CHEMICALS

    The Fish Embryo Test (FET) is a potential animal alternative for the acute fish toxicity (AFT) test. A comprehensive validation program assessed 20 different chemicals to understand intra‐ and inter‐laboratory variability for the FET. The FET had sufficient reproducibility across a range of potencies and modes of action. Here the suitability of the FET as an alternative model is subsequently ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Chromium toxicity

    Chromium, in the form of unidentified chromium compounds, occurs naturally in the earth’s crust and is widely distributed in air, water, soil, and food. Chromium (3+) is an essential trace element in humans. The general population is exposed to some chromium (6+) compounds, but the levels of exposure vary. Environmental exposure specifically to chromium(6+) compounds is difficult to quantify, ...


    By Valahia University

  • Financial risks and opportunities from toxic chemicals in products

    In this article, the author discusses how social response product development (or SRPD) is an essential strategy for avoiding the risks from toxic chemicals in products and seizing the opportunities that arise from developing safer alternatives. In World Inc., Bruce Piasecki focuses on Social Response Product Development (SRPD) as the core element of the Social Response Capitalism that is ...


    By AHC Group

  • Online Instrumentation to Protect Wastewater Facilities from Toxic Chemicals

    ABSTRACTSecurity concerns are driving current research to develop means of detecting toxic chemicals in wastewater influents as few online instruments are currently available for this purpose. Online respirometers such as the STIPTox are the obvious choice using existing, established technology. One of these units was recently used successfully in the WERF project 03-CTS-7S “Feasibility Testing ...

  • Book Review: Detection Technologies for Chemical Warfare Agents and Toxic Vapors

    Detection Technologies for Chemical Warfare Agents and Toxic Vapors, by Yin Sun and Kwok Y. Ong. CRC Press, 2005. 272pp. ISBN1-56670-668-8Keywords: book ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • The 'whole-effluent' toxicity approach

    The identification and quantification of effluent toxicity plays an important role in the evaluation of harmful impacts on the aquatic environment. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the advantages of using the 'whole-effluent' toxicity approach compared to prediction of toxicity using key toxic compounds. An underestimation of 'whole-effluent' toxicity was always observed using bacteria, ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Perfectly clean water - without the use of toxic chemicals - Case Study

    Bacteria-free surroundings breeds healthier and more productive cattle Danish Clean Water A/S is a manufacturer of ECA generators and has successfully marketed and deployed its generator for more than 5 years, sold to more than 20 countries through local partnerships and has thereby gained significant market power. The ECA generator can be used in various industries and production sites, ...

  • Relationships between exposure and dose in aquatic toxicity tests for organic chemicals

    There is continuing debate about the merits of exposure‐based toxicity metrics such as median lethal concentration (LC50) versus organism‐based metrics such as Critical Body Residue (CBR) as indicators of chemical toxicity to aquatic organisms. To demonstrate relationships and differences between these two metrics we apply a simple one‐compartment toxicokinetic mass‐balance model for ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Passive samplers for chemical substance monitoring and associated toxicity assessment in water

    The European legislation, and in particular the Water Framework Directive requires the development of cost efficient monitoring tools that can provide the required information for the assessment of water contamination. Passive sampling methods represent one of the novel tools that have a potential to be used in various regulatory monitoring programmes aimed at assessing the levels of chemical ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Comparison of hazard area and casualty predictions of a small-scale chemical attack using various toxic load toxicity models

    It has been observed that the toxic load model can better account for toxic effects from chemical exposures than Haber’s law. However, the toxic load model has been experimentally validated only for steady exposures. We compare four proposed extensions of the toxic load model to the case of time-varying exposures. We conclude that the choice of the toxic load model can be important in ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Uptake and toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in terrestrial springtails—studying bioconcentration kinetics and linking toxicity to chemical activity

    Passive dosing applies a polymer loaded with test compound(s) to establish and maintain constant exposure in laboratory experiments. Passive dosing with the silicone poly(dimethylsiloxane) was used to control exposure of the terrestrial springtail Folsomia candida to six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in bioconcentration and toxicity experiments. Folsomia candida could move freely on ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • The possible toxic effects of lead

    Lead is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Pb (Latin: plumbum) and atomic number 82. A soft, heavy, toxic and malleable lead is bluish white when freshly cut but tarnishes to dull gray when exposed to air, very dense metal which is very soft, highly malleable, ductile, and a relatively poor conductor of electricity. It is odourless. It is highly resistant to corrosion ...


    By Valahia University

  • Toxicity Testing Moves Ahead

    Lynn L. Bergeson, “toxicity testing moves ahead,” chemical processing, September 2010. The Tox21 Partnership aims for far faster and less expensive screening. Who would have thought that an automated laboratory working around the clock could screen chemical substances for interactions with biological targets at speeds mere mortals could hardly consider — let alone match? Well, ...


    By Bergeson & Campbell, P.C.

  • Biological and chemical influences on trace metal toxicity and bioaccumulation in the marine and estuarine environment

    For several trace metals, bioavailability and toxicity are controlled by both chemical (free ion) and physiological effects. The role of salinity in trace metal uptake (particularly cadmium) could be explained by a mixture of free ion and biological effects. Mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MMHg) bioaccumulation is different from that of other metals because uptake of the free metal ion via ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Bacteria-free water - without the use of toxic chemicals - Case Study

    Aarhus University Hospital fought against Legionella bacteria – and won Legionella bacteria thrives in all hot-water supplies and Aarhus University Hospital, Risskov felt the problem firsthand. With the ECA generator from Danish Clean Water A/S they managed to significantly reduce the bacteria and thereby minimizing risks concerning Legionella. Virtually all hospitals, ...

  • The impact of Toxic Substances Control Act nomenclature on the commercialization of biobased chemicals

    Regulatory Review is a regular column featuring updates on regulatory matters concerning oils- and fats-related industries. Moving from bench to market Many small companies or those new to chemical manufacturing are not aware of their obligations under TSCA. Most biobased chemical companies have likely operated under the research and development (R&D) ...


    By Bergeson & Campbell, P.C.

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