toxic chemical Articles

  • USE OF FISH EMBRYO TOXICITY TESTS FOR THE PREDICTION OF ACUTE FISH TOXICITY TO CHEMICALS

    The Fish Embryo Test (FET) is a potential animal alternative for the acute fish toxicity (AFT) test. A comprehensive validation program assessed 20 different chemicals to understand intra‐ and inter‐laboratory variability for the FET. The FET had sufficient reproducibility across a range of potencies and modes of action. Here the suitability of the FET as an alternative model is subsequently ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Financial risks and opportunities from toxic chemicals in products

    In this article, the author discusses how social response product development (or SRPD) is an essential strategy for avoiding the risks from toxic chemicals in products and seizing the opportunities that arise from developing safer alternatives. In World Inc., Bruce Piasecki focuses on Social Response Product Development (SRPD) as the core element of the Social Response Capitalism that is ...


    By AHC Group

  • Chromium toxicity

    Chromium, in the form of unidentified chromium compounds, occurs naturally in the earth’s crust and is widely distributed in air, water, soil, and food. Chromium (3+) is an essential trace element in humans. The general population is exposed to some chromium (6+) compounds, but the levels of exposure vary. Environmental exposure specifically to chromium(6+) compounds is difficult to quantify, ...


    By Valahia University

  • Online Instrumentation to Protect Wastewater Facilities from Toxic Chemicals

    ABSTRACTSecurity concerns are driving current research to develop means of detecting toxic chemicals in wastewater influents as few online instruments are currently available for this purpose. Online respirometers such as the STIPTox are the obvious choice using existing, established technology. One of these units was recently used successfully in the WERF project 03-CTS-7S “Feasibility Testing ...

  • The 'whole-effluent' toxicity approach

    The identification and quantification of effluent toxicity plays an important role in the evaluation of harmful impacts on the aquatic environment. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the advantages of using the 'whole-effluent' toxicity approach compared to prediction of toxicity using key toxic compounds. An underestimation of 'whole-effluent' toxicity was always observed using bacteria, ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Comparison of hazard area and casualty predictions of a small-scale chemical attack using various toxic load toxicity models

    It has been observed that the toxic load model can better account for toxic effects from chemical exposures than Haber’s law. However, the toxic load model has been experimentally validated only for steady exposures. We compare four proposed extensions of the toxic load model to the case of time-varying exposures. We conclude that the choice of the toxic load model can be important in ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Whole Effluent Toxicity Testing

    What is Whole Effluent Toxicity (WET) testing? Whole Effluent Toxicity (WET) testing is an important component of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (USEPA’s) integrated approach for detecting and addressing toxicity in surface waters. The National Pollutant Discharge  Elimination System (NPDES) permit program, authorized by the Clean Water Act, controls water pollution by ...

  • Uptake and toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in terrestrial springtails—studying bioconcentration kinetics and linking toxicity to chemical activity

    Passive dosing applies a polymer loaded with test compound(s) to establish and maintain constant exposure in laboratory experiments. Passive dosing with the silicone poly(dimethylsiloxane) was used to control exposure of the terrestrial springtail Folsomia candida to six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in bioconcentration and toxicity experiments. Folsomia candida could move freely on ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Toxicity Testing Moves Ahead

    Who would have thought that an automated laboratory working around the clock could screen chemical substances for interactions with biological targets at speeds mere mortals could hardly consider — let alone match? Well, this is exactly what is occurring today thanks to a collaborative effort known as “Tox21″ among the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the National ...


    By Acta Group

  • Book Review: Detection Technologies for Chemical Warfare Agents and Toxic Vapors

    Detection Technologies for Chemical Warfare Agents and Toxic Vapors, by Yin Sun and Kwok Y. Ong. CRC Press, 2005. 272pp. ISBN1-56670-668-8Keywords: book ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Passive samplers for chemical substance monitoring and associated toxicity assessment in water

    The European legislation, and in particular the Water Framework Directive requires the development of cost efficient monitoring tools that can provide the required information for the assessment of water contamination. Passive sampling methods represent one of the novel tools that have a potential to be used in various regulatory monitoring programmes aimed at assessing the levels of chemical ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Relationships between exposure and dose in aquatic toxicity tests for organic chemicals

    There is continuing debate about the merits of exposure‐based toxicity metrics such as median lethal concentration (LC50) versus organism‐based metrics such as Critical Body Residue (CBR) as indicators of chemical toxicity to aquatic organisms. To demonstrate relationships and differences between these two metrics we apply a simple one‐compartment toxicokinetic mass‐balance model for ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Emphasis Shifting to Toxicity Reduction

    Untitled Document Under the Clean Water Act (CWA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the National Pollutant ...


    By Calgon Carbon Corporation

  • The possible toxic effects of lead

    Lead is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Pb (Latin: plumbum) and atomic number 82. A soft, heavy, toxic and malleable lead is bluish white when freshly cut but tarnishes to dull gray when exposed to air, very dense metal which is very soft, highly malleable, ductile, and a relatively poor conductor of electricity. It is odourless. It is highly resistant to corrosion ...


    By Valahia University

  • Regional models for sediment toxicity assessment

    The present study describes approaches to improve the performance of empirical models developed from a large nationwide data set to predict sediment toxicity from chemistry for regional applications. We developed four multiple chemical (PMax) models selected from individual chemical models developed using (1) a previously published approach applied to the nationwide data set; (2) a broader ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Toxicity management: it's a bug's life

    Untitled Document Most biological treatment plants that accept industrial wastewaters expirience problems from time to time with ...

  • Bridging environmental mixtures and toxic effects

    The Biological Response Indicator Devices Gauging Environmental Stressors (BRIDGES) is a bioanalytical tool that combines passive sampling with the embryonic zebrafish developmental toxicity bioassay to provide a quantitative measure of the toxicity of bioavailable complex mixtures. Passive sampling devices (PSDs), which sequester and concentrate bioavailable organic contaminants from the ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Biological and chemical influences on trace metal toxicity and bioaccumulation in the marine and estuarine environment

    For several trace metals, bioavailability and toxicity are controlled by both chemical (free ion) and physiological effects. The role of salinity in trace metal uptake (particularly cadmium) could be explained by a mixture of free ion and biological effects. Mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MMHg) bioaccumulation is different from that of other metals because uptake of the free metal ion via ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Toxicity Assessment Using a Dilution Series

    Toxicity, or more appropriately, inhibition, is a measure of the interference of a compound or compounds with biodegradation. Since inhibition usually is expressed as the interference with bioconversion of an oxygen-consuming reaction – or gas producing reaction in the case of anoxic or anaerobic reactions – it is essential that a biodegradable substrate be present when assessing toxicity of ...


    By Challenge Technology

  • State and Local Governments Step Into Toxics Regulation

    According to the Center for International Environmental Law (CIEL), federal inaction on chemicals management and regulation has spurred state and even local government entities to step into toxics regulation. CIEL issued a position paper last May, Cloudy Skies, Chance of Sun: A Forecast for U.S. Reform of Chemicals Policy, predicting exactly this result. CIEL points to the fact that at least six ...


    By Bergeson & Campbell, P.C.

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