toxicity measurement Articles

  • Using FTIR spectroscopy to measure hydrocarbon pollution in water

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF’s 2015 Progress on Sanitation and Drinking Water report almost 700 million people around the world don’t have access to clean drinking water [1]. Poor water quality is beginning to return to the developed world too. The strain of population growth, intensified agricultural practices and continued industrial expansion have are ...


    By Specac Limited

  • Bioavailability‐based chronic toxicity measurements of permethrin to Chironomus dilutus

    Compared to acute toxicity, chronic exposures to low levels of contaminants are more environmentally relevant but less data are available. Sediment toxicity of the pyrethoid permethrin to Chironomus dilutus was determined. The whole life cycle toxicity testing was conducted with the endpoints covering survival, growth, emergence and reproduction. Permethrin caused 50% lethality in C. dilutus at ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • A new approach based on polynomial functions for measuring the acute toxicity of environmental samples

    In this paper, a new mathematical approach for the estimation of acute toxicity in environmental samples is proposed. The concentration of pollutant or the amount of sample producing the inhibition of 50% of the living organisms used for the test (EC50) is determined by means of Polynomial Functions (PF) applied to the experimental x (concentration of pollutant) and y (concentration or number of ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Detection and measurement of toxic gases from destructive testing of batteries

    Problem Statement New formulations of organic-compound-based batteries for vehicle use must be tested for release of potentially harmful and toxic gases if crushed in accidents. Potential gases include hydrocarbons, fluorocarbons, and hydrogen fluoride, released within seconds of an incident. Actual time-resolved and quantitative data are required from destructive testing to ascertain ...


    By CIC Photonics, Inc.

  • Use of anaerobic respirometers for measuring gas production in toxicity and treatability tests

    Introduction Anaerobic processes are used widely for stabilizing domestic sludges, treating industrial wastes, and converting biomass to methane. These processes frequently receive complex organic chemicals that are classified as being hazardous or toxic. Despite advances in our understanding of anaerobic reactions, there is limited information regarding the impact of toxic chemicals on the ...


    By Challenge Technology

  • Optical bioassay for measuring sublethal toxicity of insecticides in Daphnia pulex

    Many emerging contaminants tend to be biologically active at very low concentrations, occur in water as part of complex mixtures, and impact biota in ways that are not detected using traditional toxicity tests (e.g., median lethal concentration). To evaluate emerging contaminants, the authors developed a method for detecting sublethal behavioral effects by quantifying the swimming behavior of ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Rapid Testing of Toxic Chemicals

    Untitled Document The measurement ...


  • Emphasis Shifting to Toxicity Reduction

    Untitled Document Under the Clean Water Act (CWA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the National Pollutant ...


    By Calgon Carbon Corporation

  • Whole Effluent Toxicity Testing

    What is Whole Effluent Toxicity (WET) testing? Whole Effluent Toxicity (WET) testing is an important component of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (USEPA’s) integrated approach for detecting and addressing toxicity in surface waters. The National Pollutant Discharge  Elimination System (NPDES) permit program, authorized by the Clean Water Act, controls water pollution by ...

  • Mixture toxicity of wood preservative products in the fish embryo toxicity test

    Wood preservative products are used globally to protect wood from fungal decay and insects. We investigated the aquatic toxicity of five commercial wood preservative products, the biocidal active substances and some formulation additives contained therein, as well as six generic binary mixtures of the active substances in the fish embryo toxicity test (FET). Median lethal concentrations (LC50) of ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Subacute toxicity of selenium sources in mice

    Sixteen groups of mice were fed diets containing different selenium species to compare their toxicity. Inorganic sodium selenate and sodium hydroselenite, elementary nanoSe, organic Sel‐Plex, and Lacto‐MicroSelenium were administered for 14 d at concentrations of 0.5, 5, and 50 ppm Se, equivalent to 0.5, 5, and 50 mg Se/kg food, corresponding to an estimated 4, 40, and 400 µg/kg bw/d Se uptake, ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Toxicity Assessment Using a Dilution Series

    Toxicity, or more appropriately, inhibition, is a measure of the interference of a compound or compounds with biodegradation. Since inhibition usually is expressed as the interference with bioconversion of an oxygen-consuming reaction – or gas producing reaction in the case of anoxic or anaerobic reactions – it is essential that a biodegradable substrate be present when assessing toxicity of ...


    By Challenge Technology

  • Bridging environmental mixtures and toxic effects

    The Biological Response Indicator Devices Gauging Environmental Stressors (BRIDGES) is a bioanalytical tool that combines passive sampling with the embryonic zebrafish developmental toxicity bioassay to provide a quantitative measure of the toxicity of bioavailable complex mixtures. Passive sampling devices (PSDs), which sequester and concentrate bioavailable organic contaminants from the ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Lethal and sublethal measures of chronic copper toxicity in the eastern narrowmouth toad, Gastrophryne carolinensis

    Many metals are acutely toxic to aquatic organisms at high concentrations and for some metals, such as copper (Cu), even low‐level chronic contamination may be cause for conservation concern. Amphibian susceptibility to Cu has been examined in only a few species and susceptibility is highly variable. We examined the lethal and sublethal effects of chronic aqueous Cu exposure on embryonic and ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Influence of exposure and toxicokinetics on measures of aquatic toxicity for organic contaminants: A case study review

    This theoretical and case‐study review of dynamic exposures of aquatic organisms to organic contaminants examines variables important for interpreting exposure and therefore toxicity. The timing and magnitude of the absorbed dose change when the dynamics of exposure change. Thus, the dose metric for interpreting toxic responses observed during such exposure conditions is generally limited to ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • A Method of Assessing Air Toxics Concentrations in Urban Areas Using Mobile Platform Measurements

    ABSTRACTThe objective of this paper is to demonstrate an approach to characterize the spatial variability in ambient air concentrations using mobile platform measurements. This approach may be useful for air toxics assessments in Environmental Justice applications, epidemiological studies, and environmental health risk assessments. In this study, we developed and applied a method to characterize ...

  • Daphnia magna wastewater toxicity assays: an interlaboratory study

    In order to protect aquatic life, many acute and short-term chronic whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests have been employed for assessment of the toxicity of wastewater. Toxicity tests using biological responses to measure effects provide valuable information about the significance of chemical contamination. The response of an organism to contaminated effluents provides an integrated measure of ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Vanadium bioavailability and toxicity to soil microorganisms and plants

    Vanadium, V, is a redox‐sensitive metal that in solution, under aerobic conditions, prevails as the oxyanion vanadate(V). There is little known regarding vanadium toxicity to soil biota and the present study was set up to determine the toxicity of added vanadate to soil organisms and to investigate the relationship between toxicity and vanadium sorption in soils. Five soils with contrasting ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Acute toxicity of pyraclostrobin and trifloxystrobin to Hyalella azteca

    Fungicide application rates on row crop agriculture have increased across the United States, and subsequently, contamination of adjacent wetlands can occur through spray drift or field runoff. To investigate fungicide toxicity, Hyalella azteca amphipods were exposed to 2 fungicide formulations, Headline and Stratego, and their active strobilurin ingredients, pyraclostrobin and trifloxystrobin. ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Diclofenac: New data on chronic toxicity and bioconcentration in fish

    Diclofenac (DCF) is a widely used nonsteroidal anti‐inflammatory drug that is regularly detected in surface waters. To support a robust aquatic risk assessment, two early life stage (ELS) tests, compliant with the Organisation for Economic Co‐operation and Development (OECD) test guideline 210, were conducted in rainbow trout and in zebrafish. Population relevant endpoints, such as hatching, ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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