toxicity reduction Articles

  • Emphasis Shifting to Toxicity Reduction

    Untitled Document Under the Clean Water Act (CWA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the National Pollutant ...


    By Calgon Carbon Corporation

  • Toxicity reduction in industrial and municipal effluents – the state of the art

    Developments in treatment technology have traditionally focused on removal of specific contaminants: BOD, solids, ammonia, TOC and lately, specific organics such as phenol. A limit on effluent toxicity, however, does not fit so neatly into a procedural package, since it truly integrates the presence and impacts of contaminants in a sample. Toxicity reduction evaluation procedures, therefore, are ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Toxicity reduction using powder activated Carbon

    Petroleum reserves, international politics and economic considerations are driving the domestic petrochemical industry toward heavy and sour crude slates. A consequence of the change is increased concerns related to the wastewater effluent toxicity. In 2005, a powdered activated carbon-activated sludge (PAC-AS) treatment process was installed at a petrochemical facility to reduce whole effluent ...


    By Burns & McDonnell

  • Curtailing Contamination Hydrocarbon Engineering July 2017

    During planned shutdowns, the equipment in refineries and petrochemical plants has to be checked. The downtime can require several weeks when tanks, vessels, distillation columns, and pipes have to be drained and cleaned for i   maintenance or repair. Shutdowns are labour-intensive and require accurate scheduling and organisation between all projects, as often hundreds of workers are ...


    By Kurita

  • Toxicity reduction and biodegradability enhancement of cork processing wastewaters by ozonation

    Biodegradability enhancement and detoxification of cork boiling wastewater (CBW) are required for the successful implementation of biological treatment options. We studied the possibility of achieving these goals through ozonation pre-treatment by experimenting on the effect of ozone dose and pH. The CBW used had a pH of 5.81, a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 1,865 mg L−1, a biochemical ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Emissions reduction with Diesel blending

    Diesel technologies are develops by huge rates. Modification of cars with diesel engines make a half of the new cars sold in Europe. The black smoke, noisy engine operation and unpleasant smell remained far in the past. Today diesel engines present not only profitability, but also high capacity and worthy dynamic characteristics. Quality of fuel also is changed. The modern diesel blending has ...


    By GlobeCore GmbH

  • Sorption and toxicity reduction of pharmaceutically active compounds and endocrine disrupting chemicals in the presence of colloidal humic acid

    This study investigated the toxicity changes and sorption of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupters in the presence of humic acid (HA). For the sorption experiment, a dead end filtration (DEF) system was used to separate bound and free-form target compounds. An algae growth inhibition test and E-screen assay were conducted to estimate the toxic effect of pharmaceutically active compounds ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Integrating toxicity reduction strategies for materials and components into product design: A case study on utility meters

    Using RIO Tronics utility meter products as an industrial case study, the numeric Fraunhofer Toxic Potential Indicator (TPI) assessment tool is employed to determine high impact materials with the aim of reducing the content of inherently toxic substances in these products. However, because product re‐design with alternative materials affects entire components, overall component toxicity ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Toxic and Hazardous Materials in Electronics

    Untitled Document Introduction In October 2000 Environment Canada released a report called Information Technology (IT) and Telecommunications (Telecom) ...

  • Emissions Reduction with Diesel Blending

    Diesel technologies are develops by huge rates. Modification of cars with diesel engines make a half of the new cars sold in Europe. The black smoke, noisy engine operation and unpleasant smell remained far in the past. Today diesel engines present not only profitability, but also high capacity and worthy dynamic characteristics. Quality of fuel also is changed. The modern diesel blending has ...


    By GlobeCore GmbH

  • A comparative study of perchlorate degradation in acute toxicity and chronic toxicity

    Since the discovery of perchlorate in water system, the public has been concerned about its human health effect. In practice it was reported that chronic exposure to perchlorate may lead to damage in thyroid hormone activity. This study introduced a method of perchlorate reduction, using autotrophic bacteria which utilise hydrogen as an electron donor. Two experiments were conducted to compare ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Subacute toxicity of selenium sources in mice

    Sixteen groups of mice were fed diets containing different selenium species to compare their toxicity. Inorganic sodium selenate and sodium hydroselenite, elementary nanoSe, organic Sel‐Plex, and Lacto‐MicroSelenium were administered for 14 d at concentrations of 0.5, 5, and 50 ppm Se, equivalent to 0.5, 5, and 50 mg Se/kg food, corresponding to an estimated 4, 40, and 400 µg/kg bw/d Se uptake, ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Chemical Use Reduction, Recycling for Packaging, Waste Reduction and Energy Use Reduction: Robert Bosch Australia

     Background Robert Bosch Australia was established in 1954 in Clayton, Victoria. The main manufacturing plant remains there to this day. The company has some 1,150 employees in Australia. Robert Bosch manufactures and distributes a wide variety of products from electronic consumer goods, to industrial hydraulics, to hot water systems. The focus of activity in Australia is ...


  • Bioswales reduce contaminants associated with toxicity in urban stormwater

    Contamination and toxicity associated with urban stormwater runoff are a growing concern because of the potential for receiving system impacts. California water regulators are mandating implementation of green infrastructure as part of new urban development projects to treat stormwater and increase infiltration. Parking lot bioswales are low impact development practices that promote filtering ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Acute toxicity of pyraclostrobin and trifloxystrobin to Hyalella azteca

    Fungicide application rates on row crop agriculture have increased across the United States, and subsequently, contamination of adjacent wetlands can occur through spray drift or field runoff. To investigate fungicide toxicity, Hyalella azteca amphipods were exposed to 2 fungicide formulations, Headline and Stratego, and their active strobilurin ingredients, pyraclostrobin and trifloxystrobin. ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Effect of light on toxicity of nanosilver to Tetrahymena pyriformis

    More and more silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been released into the aquatic environment due to their widespread use, which may result in harmful effects on aquatic organisms. Environmental risk assessments of AgNPs on aquatic organisms in the natural environment (including light, sound, etc.) are indispensable. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the influence of light on the ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Photosynthetic and cellular toxicity of cadmium in Chlorella vulgaris

    The toxic effects of cadmium (Cd) on the green alga Chlorella vulgaris were investigated by following the response to Cd of various toxicity endpoints (cell growth, cell size, photochemical efficiency of PSII in the light or ФPSII, maximal photochemical efficiency or Fv/Fm, chlorophyll a fluorescence, esterase activity and cell viability). These toxicity endpoints were studied in laboratory ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Application of Fenton oxidation to reduce the toxicity of mixed parabens

    The aims of the present work were to assess the application of a chemical process to degrade a mixture of parabens and determine the influence of a natural river water matrix on toxicity. Model effluents containing either a single compound, namely methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, butylparaben, benzylparaben or p-hydroxybenzoic acid, or to mimic realistic conditions a mixture of the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Legal Lookout: EPA Expands Mercury Reduction Program

    Untitled Document Mercury is a naturally occurring metal found in the Earth’s crust. At high doses, mercury is known to cause adverse human health effects. Over the past several ...


    By Bergeson & Campbell, P.C.

  • Regionally Based Assessment of Persistent Toxic Substances

    Untitled Document EXECUTIVE SUMMARY In 1997 the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Governing Council decided that immediate international action ...


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