toxicity screening Articles

  • New ways for Metal Recycling

    REWAVE XRF 3-way-sorting in innovative  “Free-Fall”-design Recycling of metal and aluminium knows no limits because it can be remelted as scrap indefinitely. Metals, however have to be separated from non-metallic impurities, and different metals have to be sorted in pure fractions to be used as secondary raw materials substituting primary resources. Especially when it ...

  • On the suitability of Portable X-Ray Fluorescence Analyzers for rapid screening of toxic

    Abstract X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) has been routinely used for alloy testing, determination of Pb in paint, and determination of Cd in plastic. However, its use to screen for toxic elements in food and medicinal products has been surprisingly limited to date. While XRF is less sensitive than atomic spectrometry methods such as ICP-AES and ICP-MS, it offers a number of significant ...


    By Northern ANI Solutions Ltd.

  • A screening study on the fate of fullerenes (nC60) and their toxic implications in natural freshwaters

    Increasing usage of fullerenes (C60) increases their opportunities to be released into the environment. For risk assessment, it is important to understand the environmental fate and ecotoxicological effects of C60. In this study, fullerene settling was measured during a one‐year period with four different lake waters and an artificial freshwater, and D. magna immobilization and fullerene ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Toxicity Testing Moves Ahead

    Who would have thought that an automated laboratory working around the clock could screen chemical substances for interactions with biological targets at speeds mere mortals could hardly consider — let alone match? Well, this is exactly what is occurring today thanks to a collaborative effort known as “Tox21″ among the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the National ...


    By Acta Group

  • Toxicity Testing Moves Ahead

    Lynn L. Bergeson, “toxicity testing moves ahead,” chemical processing, September 2010. The Tox21 Partnership aims for far faster and less expensive screening. Who would have thought that an automated laboratory working around the clock could screen chemical substances for interactions with biological targets at speeds mere mortals could hardly consider — let alone match? Well, ...


    By Bergeson & Campbell, P.C.

  • Mixture toxicity of wood preservative products in the fish embryo toxicity test

    Wood preservative products are used globally to protect wood from fungal decay and insects. We investigated the aquatic toxicity of five commercial wood preservative products, the biocidal active substances and some formulation additives contained therein, as well as six generic binary mixtures of the active substances in the fish embryo toxicity test (FET). Median lethal concentrations (LC50) of ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Sensitivity of Ecological Soil screening levels for metals to exposure model parameterization and toxicity reference values

    Ecological soil‐screening levels (Eco‐SSLs) were developed by the USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) for purposes of setting conservative soil screening values that can be used to eliminate the need for further ecological assessment for specific analytes at a given site. Eco‐SSLs for wildlife represent a simplified dietary exposure model solved in terms of soil ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Bridging environmental mixtures and toxic effects

    The Biological Response Indicator Devices Gauging Environmental Stressors (BRIDGES) is a bioanalytical tool that combines passive sampling with the embryonic zebrafish developmental toxicity bioassay to provide a quantitative measure of the toxicity of bioavailable complex mixtures. Passive sampling devices (PSDs), which sequester and concentrate bioavailable organic contaminants from the ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Efforts to standardize wildlife toxicity values remain unrealized

    Wildlife toxicity reference values (TRVs) are routinely used during screening level and baseline ecological risk assessments (ERAs). Risk assessment professionals often adopt TRVs from published sources to expedite risk analyses. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) developed Ecological Soil Screening Levels (Eco‐SSLs) to provide a source of TRVs that would improve ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Unraveling a municipal effluent's toxicity to Tripneustes gratilla sperm fertilization

    A tiered investigative approach was employed to characterize and identify substances responsible for the persistent toxicity of a municipal primary‐treated effluent to gametes of the Hawaiian sea urchin, Tripneustes gratilla. EPA Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) procedures were modified to account for the tolerance of T.gratilla gametes to various sample manipulations. Microtox rapid ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Soil properties affect the toxicities of TNT and RDX to the enchytraeid worm, Enchytraeus crypticus

    We investigated individual toxicities of 2,4,6‐trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro‐1,3,5‐trinitro‐1,3,5‐triazine (RDX) to the potworm Enchytraeus crypticus using the Enchytraeid Reproduction Test. Studies were designed to generate ecotoxicological benchmarks that can be used for developing the ecological soil screening levels for ecological risk assessments of contaminated soils, and to ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Optical bioassay for measuring sublethal toxicity of insecticides in Daphnia pulex

    Many emerging contaminants tend to be biologically active at very low concentrations, occur in water as part of complex mixtures, and impact biota in ways that are not detected using traditional toxicity tests (e.g., median lethal concentration). To evaluate emerging contaminants, the authors developed a method for detecting sublethal behavioral effects by quantifying the swimming behavior of ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Expert opinion on toxicity profiling – report from a NORMAN expert group meeting

    This paper describes the outcome and follow‐up discussions of an expert group meeting (Amsterdam, October 9th, 2009) on the applicability of toxicity profiling for diagnostic environmental risk assessment. A toxicity profile was defined as a toxicological “fingerprint” of a sample, ranging from a pure compound to a complex mixture, obtained by testing the sample or its extract for its activity ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Expanding metal mixture toxicity models to natural stream and lake invertebrate communities

    A modeling approach that was used to predict the toxicity of dissolved single and multiple metals to trout is extended to stream benthic macroinvertebrates, freshwater zooplankton, and daphnia magna. The approach predicts the accumulation of toxicants (h, al, cd, cu, ni, pb, and zn) on organisms using three equilibrium accumulation models that define interactions between dissolved cations and ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Screening method for 2,4-d and silvex in tclp leachate

    MATRIX: Leachate of solid or liquid waste as described in Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure ANALYTE: 2,4-D and Silvex (2,4,5-TP) RANGE OF DETECTION: 1 to 50 ppm 2,4-D, 0.2 to 10 ppm Silvex MATERIALS: 2,4-D RaPID AssayÒ kit and 2,4-D Sample Diluent (available from SDI). Silvex RaPID AssayÒ kit ...


  • Sublethal Toxicity Identification Evaluation Studies – Potential Impacts of conductive Dissolved Solids

     ABSTRACT Treated effluent from the Firmenich wastewater treatment plant in Plainsboro, New Jersey (two staged activated sludge process designed for nitrogen and phosphorus removal) is discharged to the Millstone River. The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) permit requires a 96 hour acute toxicity test with Pimephales promelas (fathead minnows), with an LC50 ...

  • Controlling level of toxic liquids for the foam industry case study

    Solid provides a durable solution for level controlling of toxic liquids, using the SmartScan 50L ultrasonic measurement gauge. Polymers Ashkelon Industries located in the city of Ashkelon, is a major supplier of foam for the furniture and mattresses industry in Israel. The company has a long-standing reputation in manufacturing of foam in various shapes and sizes for mattresses, furniture and ...

  • A comparative evaluation of five hazard screening tools

    An increasing number of hazard assessment tools/approaches are being used in the marketplace as a means to differentiate products and ingredients with lower versus higher hazards or to certify what some call ‘greener’ chemical ingredients in consumer products. Some leading retailers have established policies for product manufacturers and their suppliers to disclose chemical ingredients and ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • An evaluation of inorganic toxicity reference values for use in assessing hazards to American robins (Turdus migratorius)

    When performing screening level and baseline risk assessments, assessors usually compare estimated exposures of wildlife receptor species to toxicity reference values (TRVs). We modeled the exposure of American robins (Turdus migratorius) to ten elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Pb, Se, Zn and V) in spring and early summer, a time when earthworms are preferred prey. We calculated soil ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Furthering the derivation of predictive wildlife toxicity reference values for use in soil cleanup decisions

    The development of media‐specific ecological values for risk assessment includes the derivation of acceptable levels of exposure for terrestrial wildlife (e.g., birds, mammals, reptiles, and amphibians). Though the derivation and subsequent application of these values can be used for screening purposes, there is a need to identify toxicological effects thresholds specifically for making ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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