toxicology risk assessment Articles

  • Risk Assessment/Toxicology Promotes Health and Welfare of Humans and Ecosystems

    Hundreds of regulations protecting the health and welfare of humans and ecosystems impact industrial and legal firms every day. Commonly, these regulations are associated with protecting human health and the environment from risks associated with site cleanup and closure or remediation projects. Other major health risk regulations are derived from Natural Resources Damage Assessment (NRDA), ...


    By AECOM

  • Has Quantitative Risk Assessment Been of Benefit to the Science of Toxicology?

    Quantitative approaches to evaluating the risks of chemical toxicity entered the lives of toxicologists in the mid- 1970’s, and the continuing interaction of toxicology and risk assessment has been of benefit to both disciplines. I will summarize the origins of the interaction, the reasons for it, and the difficult course it has followed. In doing so, I will set the stage for a discussion of how ...


    By ENVIRON

  • Toxicological risks to humans of toxaphene residues in fish

    A revised risk assessment for toxaphene was developed, based on the assumption that fish consumers are only exposed to toxaphene residues that differ substantially from technical toxaphene due to environmental degradation and metabolism. In vitro studies confirmed that both technical toxaphene and degraded toxaphene inhibit gap junctional intercellular communication that correlates with the ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Chemical and toxicological assessment of a full‐scale biosolid compost

    The impact of a full‐scale biosolid composting plant on the fate of a broad range of priority organic pollutants was investigated. Chemical analysis was performed at different steps of the process during two seasons. Simultaneously, the toxicological quality was assessed using estrogen α‐, dioxin‐, and pregnane X‐receptor reporter cell lines. Mass‐balance calculation highlighted the removal of ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Interactions between chemical and climate stressors: A role for mechanistic toxicology in assessing climate change risks

    Incorporation of global climate change (GCC) effects into assessments of chemical risk and injury requires integrated examinations of chemical and nonchemical stressors. Environmental variables altered by GCC (temperature, precipitation, salinity, pH) can influence the toxicokinetics of chemical absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion as well as toxicodynamic interactions between ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Toxicological and ecotoxicological risk‐based prioritization of pharmaceuticals in the natural environment

    Approximately 1500 active pharmaceutical ingredients are currently in use; however, the environmental occurrence and impacts of only a small proportion of these have been investigated. Recognizing that it would be impractical to monitor and assess all pharmaceuticals that are in use, several previous studies have proposed the use of prioritization approaches to identify substances of most ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Comparative Risk Assessment

    ' Comparative risk assessment provides a systematic way to compare environmental problems that pose different types and degrees of health risk. It combines information on the inherent hazards of pollutants, exposure levels and population characteristics to predict the resulting health effects. Using data from available sources, rapid, inexpensive comparative risk assessments can identify the most ...


    By The World Bank

  • Ecological Risk Assessment

    In recent years, ecological risk assessment (ERA) has emerged as an important part of environmental protection programs. The following discussion provides a brief overview of ERA issues. What is ecological risk assessment? Ecological risk assessment is the practice of determining the nature and likelihood of effects of our actions on animals, plants, and the environment. ...

  • It is time to develop ecological thresholds of toxicological concern to assist environmental hazard assessment

    The Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) concept is well established for assessing human safety of food‐contact substances and has been reapplied for a variety of endpoints including carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, and reproductive toxicity. The TTC establishes an exposure level for chemicals, below which no appreciable risk to human health or the environment is expected based upon a de ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Gas station risk assessment closure

    On behalf of a local developer, Troy Risk successfully obtained a No-Further-Action certification from the State environmental agency IDEM in just several months. The site historically operated as a gas station. Several subsurface investigations at the site confirmed that soil was impacted from an old petroleum release. The release was discovered in 1994 during collection of soil and groundwater ...


    By Troy Risk, Inc.

  • Hormesis: Why it is Important to Toxicology and Toxicologists - Critical Review

    This article provides a comprehensive review of hormesis, a dose–response concept that is characterized by a low-dose stimulation and a high-dose inhibition. The article traces the historical foundations of hormesis, its quantitative features and mechanistic foundations, and its risk assessment implications. The article indicates that the hormetic dose response is the most fundamental dose ...

  • Applications and implications of neurochemical biomarkers in environmental toxicology

    Thousands of environmental contaminants have neurotoxic properties though their ecological risk is poorly characterized. Contaminant‐associated disruptions to animal behavior and reproduction, both of which are regulated by the nervous system, provide compelling evidence of harm to decision makers but such apical endpoints are of limited predictive or harm preventative value. Neurochemical ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Review of toxicological effects caused by episodic stressor exposure

    Water quality monitoring tools that rely on data from stress‐response tests with continuous exposure at constant concentrations are not always appropriately protective when stressor exposure in the field is episodic in nature. The present study identifies various approaches that have attempted to account for episodic stressor exposure, describes the development of a toxicological effects database ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Automated information retrieval for quantitative risk assessment data

    The amount of toxicologic literature available can be so copious as to present significant challenges to risk assessors tasked with identifying key studies. As a new approach to managing such information, an information specialist and a toxicologist developed an open source text mining computer program consisting of knowledge bases and search algorithms. Quantitative toxicologic data, such as ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Aquatic Risk Assessment of Pesticides in Latin America

    Latin America is anticipated to be a major growth market for agriculture and production is increasing with use of technologies such as pesticides. Reports of contamination of aquatic ecosystems by pesticides in Latin America have raised concerns about potential for adverse ecological effects. In the registration process of pesticides, all countries require significant data packages on aquatic ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Ecological risk assessment in the context of global climate change

    Changes to sources, stressors, habitats, and geographic ranges; toxicological effects; end points; and uncertainty estimation require significant changes in the implementation of ecological risk assessment (ERA). Because of the lack of analog systems and circumstances in historically studied sites, there is a likelihood of type III error. As a first step, the authors propose a decision key to ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Quantitative risk assessment for contaminated sites in Spain

    Environmental Quantitative Risk Assessment is one of the key factors in the Decision Making Process for contaminated sites. Numerous decisions have to be made before, during and after conducting a quantitative risk assessment.Risk assessment is based on the information gathered previously: Historical information (Phase I) Site characterization (Phase II) Toxicological ...

  • Thesaurus of terms used in MRA, microbiological risk assessment

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Office of Water has developed this Thesaurus of Microbiological Risk Assessment (MRA) Terms because it is important for risk assessors, managers, and communicators to have available and to use common, understandable terms and definitions for the various facets of the MRA process. This Thesaurus is a collection of definitions of terms that ...


  • Environmental surveillance and monitoring—The next frontiers for high‐throughput toxicology

    High‐throughput toxicity testing technologies along with the World Wide Web are revolutionizing both generation of and access to data regarding the biological activities that chemicals can elicit when they interact with specific proteins, genes, or other targets in the body of an organism. To date, however, most of the focus has been on the application of such data to assessment of individual ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Toxicological effects of short‐term resuspension of metal‐contaminated freshwater and marine sediments

    Sediments in navigation‐dominated waterways are frequently contaminated with a variety of particle‐associated pollutants and are subject to frequent short‐term resuspension events. There is little information documenting whether resuspension of metal‐contaminated sediments has adverse ecological effects on resident aquatic organisms. Using a novel laboratory approach, we examined the ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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