turbidity after flocculation Articles

  • Flocculation performance of magnetic particles with high-turbidity surface water

    The sharp increase in raw-water turbidity following heavy rain presents considerable treatment problems due to low sedimentation rates. The objective of this study was to evaluate the removal of negatively charged suspended solids (SS) in surface water treatment using magnetic particles (nFeO; FeO · Fe2O3) synthesised in our laboratory. The performance of nFeO in removing ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Prediction of coagulation and flocculation processes using ANN models and fuzzy regression

    Coagulation and flocculation are two main processes used to integrate colloidal particles into larger particles and are two main stages of primary water treatment. Coagulation and flocculation processes are only needed when colloidal particles are a significant part of the total suspended solid fraction. Our objective was to predict turbidity of water after the coagulation and flocculation ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Natural ferrihydrite as an agent for reducing turbidity caused by suspended clays

    Received for publication October 22, 2008. Biologically impaired waters are often caused by the turbidity associated with elevated suspended sediment concentrations. Turbidity can be reduced by the addition of positively charged compounds that coagulate negatively charged particles in suspension, causing them to flocculate. This research was conducted to determine the effectiveness of ...

  • Removal of norovirus from water by coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation processes

    In this study, we determined the removal of a prototype human norovirus (Norwalk virus, NV) by bench-scale alum coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation processes using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for norovirus assays. After determining optimum conditions for the coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation processes in terms of turbidity reduction, jar tests were ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Natural ferrihydrite as an agent for reducing turbidity caused by suspended clays

    Biologically impaired waters are often caused by the turbidity associated with elevated suspended sediment concentrations. Turbidity can be reduced by the addition of positively charged compounds that coagulate negatively charged particles in suspension, causing them to flocculate. This research was conducted to determine the effectiveness of ferrihydrite, a poorly crystalline Fe oxide, as a ...

  • Post-treatment of sanitary landfill leachate by coagulation–flocculation using chitosan as primary coagulant

    Chitosan was chosen as an alternative primary coagulant in a complementary coagulation–flocculation treatment of sanitary landfill leachate with the aim of removing recalcitrant organic matter. In order to optimize the process conditions, central composite design and response surface methodology were applied. To evaluate the performance of the process using chitosan, we also carried out tests ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Strategies of coagulant optimisation to improve the removal of turbidity and Ceratium hirundinella cells during conventional drinking water purification

    The dinoflagellate, Ceratium hirundinella (C. hirundinella) cells are known to cause many problems when source water due for purification contains relatively high concentrations. The objective of this study was to investigate strategies for the effective and simultaneous removal of turbidity and C. hirundinella cells using turbidity and total photosynthetic ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Laboratory evaluation of a water-treatment sequence using Moringa oleifera seed coagulant

    A water extract of Moringa. oleifera seed was applied to a treatment sequence comprising coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation-sand filtration. Model waters (kaolinite suspensions) of turbidities 10, 100, 300 and 700 NTU were prepared. For the 10 NTU water, the optimum dose was only evident when sand filtration was incorporated into the treatment sequence. For the higher water turbidities ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • The effect of wastewater pretreatment on nanofiltration membrane performance

    Membrane fouling is considered a serious obstacle for operation and cost efficiency in wastewater treatment using nanofiltration (NF). However, pretreatment is the most practical way to reduce this prior to NF. In this research, two types of wastewaters were pretreated with different methods prior to NF to examine the effect of pretreatment on membrane fouling in terms of turbidity, chemical ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Magnetic seeding of non-magnetic adsorbent powders by coagulation using ferric chloride and magnetite

    A magnetic modification of conventional adsorbent powders to remove them rapidly from water is investigated. In this paper we study the possibility of using a non-magnetic adsorbent powder mixed with magnetite and a coagulant such as ferric chloride added after the adsorption to create magnetic flocs that can be magnetically separated (magnetic seeding). A natural zeolite and Na-activated ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Uptown shopping center

    ChitoVan Chitosan Lactate Cartridge Pretreatment and Sand Filtration Urban development and redevelopment present a host of challenges - not the least of which is managing site stormwater runoff. In a northern suburb of Vancouver Island’s beautiful city of Victoria, BC the stormwater challenge was met and bested through the application of both passive and active chitosan stormwater ...


    By Dungeness Environmental

  • Case study - Filtralite Fredrikstad

    When renovating the filters the waterworks was interested in testing alternative filter media and replaced the anthracite layer in one of the filters with Filtralite® media for evaluation. Filtralite® is a filter media made of expanded clay and delivered by Saint-Gobain (Weber). In March 2002 Filtralite® media was installed on top of the existing sand in one out of totally 8 filters. ...

  • Case Study: Iron Foundry

    The foundry recycles engine blocks to make iron pipe. They have a 350-gpm closed loop water reuse system that is used to cool the molds as part of the manufacturing process. The facility was using a coagulant and a flocculant to try and reduce the solids carryover from their clarifier. The solids in the reuse water were building up in their system filters causing intermittent downtime (downtime ...


    By Integrated Engineers Inc.

  • Chemical pretreatment of combined sewer overflows for improved UV disinfection

    The aim of this research was to better understand chemical pre-treatment of combined sewer overflows (CSOs) for subsequent ultraviolet (UV) disinfection. Approximately 200 jar tests were completed. Alum (Al2(S04)3·12H2O) resulted in a higher UV light transmission (UVT), and equivalent total suspended solids (TSS) removal, than ferric chloride (FeCl3). An ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Aluminum Extrusion & Anodizing Wastewater Treatability Test Success

    Aluminum Extrusion & Anodizing Aluminum Wastewater Jar Test The wastewater sample that was received from an aluminum extrusion and anodizing facility was tested with the Floccin K and it ...


    By Integrated Engineers Inc.

  • Dual-media filters, Fredrikstad waterworks, Norway

    Fredrikstad Waterworks in southeastern Norway has an annual water production of 15 mill. cubic metres and supplies the municipalities Fredrikstad and Hvaler. During autumn 2003 they have renovated their dual-media filters. After around 8 years of operation, the volume of filter media in the existing sand/anthracite-filters was significantly reduced resulting in poor filtering ...

  • Potato Processor Flume Water Treatment Case Study

    Potato Processor Flume Wastewater Case Study Potato Flume Water Treatabiliy with Floccin™ is VERY HIGH! This is the wastewater sample that was received from a potato processing facility. The facility ...


    By Integrated Engineers Inc.

  • Miller Argent case study

    On the hills above Merthyr Tydfil, Miller Argent is undertaking a highly ambitious land reclamation scheme that is also involving the extraction of coal by opencast methods. Known as the 'Ffos-y-fran Land Reclamation Scheme', this is the third and final phase of the East Merthyr Reclamation Scheme which is expected to run for another 17 years. The reclamation works will include the removal of ...


    By Partech (Electronics) Ltd.

  • Metals & Finishing Industrial Wastewater Treatment

    Industrial Wastewater Treatment Success Stories Metals and Finishing Industrial Wastewater Treatment Aircraft Components - 80% Cost Reduction ...


    By Integrated Engineers Inc.

  • Sea water desalination for sagunto, Spain

    The Problem The Sagunto locality is situated in the region of the Camp of Morvedre in Spain. In recent years, a strong industrial growth has been anticipated in the zone. This has provoked a growing requirement for water in the Municipal Region of Sagunto. For this situation, the Sagunto Council planed to cover part of the future hydraulic deficit for short and long term with the ...

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