two-component chlorine dioxide Articles

  • Chlorine

    Due to the complexity of chlorine chemistry, the activity and forms of chlorine is not well understood. Its reactions are not always 'predictable' and are somewhat unique. This memo is intended to provide some simple insight of the most common forms of chlorine that we at Osmonics® encounter. The most basic form of chlorine is Chlorine Gas (Cl2). This is usually the cheapest form of chlorination, ...

  • Chlorine Dioxide gas detection: A comprehensive guide

    Introduction Some years agoago, the bleaching process in the paper industry was changed from using Chlorine (Cl2) as bleaching agent to Chlorine dioxide (ClO2). This was a challenge forThis posed a major challenge to industrial hygienists, as there were no sensors or detectors available that were specific to Chlorine dioxide: There was no sensor technology for gas detectors available that ...

  • From Gas to Liquid: Large-Scale Chlorination System Conversion

    Abstract A number of wastewater treatment facilities using gas disinfection have decided to convert to liquid disinfection for several reasons including safety, regulatory, security, and economic factors. An optimal technology plan should be developed to facilitate the conversion. This presentation provides a case study of a large chlorine disinfection system, and demonstrates key issues of ...

  • Leaching of bisphenol A and F from new and old epoxy coatings: laboratory and field studies

    Laboratory tests were carried out with three types of new epoxy resins to assess the release of bisphenol A and F (BPA and BPF) and potential halogenated phenolic by-products. Tests were carried out over a duration of 6 months in the presence and absence of disinfectants (chlorine and chlorine dioxide) at realistic doses and contact times. None of the three systems exhibited Fickian-type ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Remote sensing of particular pollution from space: Have we reached the promised land?

    The recent literature on satellite remote sensing of air quality is reviewed. 2009 is the 50th anniversary of the first satellite atmospheric observations. For the first 40 of those years, atmospheric composition measurements, meteorology, and atmospheric structure and dynamics dominated the missions launched. Since 1995, 42 instruments relevant to air quality measurements have been put into ...

  • Waterworks city of Toulouse

    Two chlorine dioxide plants with very high capacities are in operation in order to supply the city of Toulouse with drinking water. Absolute safety in distribution of the decontaminated water to the households is required. During pre-chlorination and during post-chlorination of the water, the second system is in stand-by operation and is automatically switched on at a possible failure. The ...


  • Outbreak of Giardiasis and Cryptosporidiosis Associated with a Neighborhood Interactive Water FountainFlorida, 2006

    An outbreak of giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis was identified in central Florida in September 2006. Environmental and epidemiological investigations indicated the likely source was a neighborhood interactive water fountain in a large upscale urban neighborhood. Forty-nine cases meeting the case definition were identified, of which 38 were giardiasis, nine were cryptosporidiosis, and two were ...

  • How to Determine Aquatic Humic Substances

    Aquatic Humic Substances (AHS) result from the decomposition of plant and animal residues and are found in soil, sediment, and water. They are widespread in nature and are mostly comprised from naturally occurring dissolved organic matter in water. AHSs are an important component in water systems, particularly as they relate to the potential fate of chemicals in the aquatic environment. For ...


  • 16 Oxiperm Pro disinfection systems with flushing capacity for Messe München

    The exhibition organisers need to provide different amounts of domestic water for different kinds of exhibitors. For example, an IT industry exhibition needs a different amount of water to a watersports exhibition. This means that the domestic water pipes need to be designed on basis of the shows which need largest volumes of drinking water. With all sorts of different occupants in the Munich ...


  • Caustic soda production from green liquor using the Green Liquor Splitting (GLS) system

    A fixed-resin bed system employing an amphoteric ion-exchange resin was used to separate green liquor from a kraft mill into sodium hydrosulphide-rich and sodium carbonate/hydroxide-rich components. Depending on the conditions used, the separation efficiencies ranged from 80 to 96% for sodium hydrosulphide. 90 to 95% for sodium carbonate and 74 to 92% for sodium hydroxide. Three possible ...


    By Eco-Tec Inc.

  • Microcystin-LR removal from drinking water supplies by chemical oxidation and activated carbon adsorption

    Microcystin-LR (MC-L) is among the most toxic and frequent cyanotoxins found in surface water and a provisional value of 0.001 mg/L is indicated by World Health Organization guidelines for water for human consumption. Among the conventional processes used for surface water treatment, the most effective in microcystin removal are chemical oxidation and adsorption. This study investigated two ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Chlorites Control in European Drinking Water Treatment Plants

    ABSTRACT The paper reports initial results for experiments carried out at Fortore drinking water treatment plant aimed at controlling chlorites. Research was performed in parallel with a full-scale drinking water plant (Fortore, Italy) and a pilot plant at Mosina water treatment plant which supplies potable water to the city of Poznań (Poland). Both plants operated with pre-disinfection ...

  • Online Process Analyzer Installed at F.J. Horgan WTP to Monitor Chloramination

    Construction was completed on the City of Toronto's F.J. Hor-gan Water Treatment Plant in 1979, more than 60 years after chloramine had first been used to disinfect drinking water in an Ottawa plant. By then there was little debate about the benefits of chloramination and it was incorporated into the new plant's design as part of the disinfection process. Chloramine is more stable than free ...

  • The Use Of UV For Dechlorination

    For many years chemical disinfection techniques have been used to provide microbiologically pure water for industrial and domestic use. Free chlorine, typically introduced by municipal water treatment plants in gaseous form, has been employed for many decades as a primary oxidising agent for the control of microbiological growth. Free chlorine can also be introduced through the injection of ...

  • Crossflow Membrane Filtration High-Purity Water Systems

    INTRODUCTION As the electronics industry continues to provide us with such products as high resolution television, notebook size portable computers and cars with automatic navigation systems, it becomes necessary to produce semiconductors with finer device geometries to allow for efficient placement of more circuits per a given area. This requires increased control of a semiconductor's material ...

  • The Light at the End of the Tunnel - How to Successfully Operate a UV Disinfection System

    ABSTRACTOver the past ten years, ultraviolet (UV) technology has become a commonly applied method of disinfecting of wastewater effluent. UV disinfection involves passing wastewater effluent through a confined chamber with rows of underwater lamps emitting UV energy. Viruses and bacteria become inactivated upon exposure to dosages of UV energy, thereby disinfecting the wastewater. The UV system ...

  • City of Roswell, Georgia - Case Study

    In late 2011, the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) approved plans to install a new well and build a new water treatment facility for the City of Roswell, Georgia. Barlovento LLC was selected during a competitive bidding process to provide an iron and manganese removal system for the new water supply. AdEdge Water Technologies, LLC was contracted to design, manufacture, and commission ...

  • Chloramines

    OVERVIEW When chlorine is added to a water supply containing certain organics, the formation of halogenated organics occurs. Called 'trihalogenated methanes' (THM's) these reaction products are suspected carcinogens and maximum allowable limits in municipal supplies are imposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). To reduce the potential for the formation of THM's, many U.S. ...

  • A Layman`s Guide to Inorganic and Organic Contaminant Removal by Standard Filtration Methods

    Plant operators, maintenance engineers and mechanics, specifying engineers, installation technicians, and others involved in inorganic and organic contaminant removal are oftentimes called upon to choose and apply filtration solutions. To best make these decisions, it is helpful to review information and updated insight on basic filtration technologies, along with their advantages and ...


    By Shelco Filters

  • NOx Scrubbing Technology Breakthrough

    Pacific Rim Design and Development and Dupont are proud to introduce a technology breakthrough in the treatment and safe elimination of problematic nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ).  There are six forms of nitrogen oxide (NOx); the drawings to the right show the two most problematic forms.  These two are of particular interest because they are identified as atmospheric ...


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