urban pollution health risk Articles

  • European water policies and human health — Combining reported environmental information

    Society depends on the satisfactory and sustainable management of water. Historically, the primary purpose of water treatment was to protect human health, through reducing disease being transmitted through water. Subsequent measures to address environmental concerns have broadened our expectations of what water and waste water treatment should deliver. This report considers three pieces of EU ...

  • The Economic Toll of Pollution’s Effects on Health

    Measuring and valuing the health impacts of pollution are very complex and available methods of economic analysis are often rudimentary. In recent years, considerable progress has been made, especially in respect to air pollution. This note summarizes the latest findings and outlines some basic approaches that can be applied in the economic analysis of Bank projects and sector studies. However, a ...


  • The Bacteriological Analysis and Health Risks in the Urban Estuary of St. George’s Bay, Grenada, West Indies

    The dilution rates of indicators Enterococcus faecalis and E. coli were studied from the St. John’s River estuary in Grenada, West Indies. Health risk zones were established based on the levels of bacteriological pollution. In accordance with the World Health Organization (WHO) health risk guidelines, risks were in the range of <1% gastrointestinal (GI); <0.3% acute febrile ...

  • A Bayesian model for studying urban air pollution and respiratory symptoms in children

    The association between traffic–related air pollution and long–term respiratory health problems has been extensively studied. In this work we evaluated the effect of traffic–related air pollution on respiratory symptoms in children living in Florence, Italy. Children were selected from different schools part of the Italian Studies on Respiratory Disorders in Children and the Environment 2. ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Urban Air Quality Management

    ' Poor air quality due to pollution is a serious environmental problem in most urban areas. The greatest burden of pollution is on human health. Urban air quality management requires an integrated approach that (i) identifies the most serious problems and measures that offer cost-effective and feasible solutions across a range of economic sectors and pollution sources including industries, ...


    By The World Bank

  • Urban energy policy design

    Over 60 per cent of global energy demand is consumed in cities, where roughly half of the world's population lives. Moreover, the urban population is expected to continue increasing rapidly due to growing urbanisation in emerging economies and developing countries, putting cities at the centre of the sustainable energy challenge. Cities can play an important role in the application of sustainable ...


    By GLOBE Foundation

  • Health impact assessment of wastewater reuse for replenishing an urban landscape lake by disability-adjusted life year

    Wastewater reuse for landscape water replenishment has raised severe public concerns over potential health hazards. Thus, this study aims to quantify the health impacts due to the replenishment of Lake Cui in Kunming with reclaimed water. Based on experimental analyses, Escherichia coli and norovirus were determined as the major pathogens in Lake Cui. Three typical exposure routes, namely ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Environment and human health

    In 2010, the comprehensive European environment - State and outlook 2010 report showed that environmental policies have delivered substantial progress in improving the state of the environment in Europe. However, it also stressed that major environmental challenges remain. Water and air pollution have declined but not enough to achieve good ecological quality in all water bodies or to ensure good ...

  • Comparative Risk Assessment

    ' Comparative risk assessment provides a systematic way to compare environmental problems that pose different types and degrees of health risk. It combines information on the inherent hazards of pollutants, exposure levels and population characteristics to predict the resulting health effects. Using data from available sources, rapid, inexpensive comparative risk assessments can identify the most ...


    By The World Bank

  • Indicators of Pollution Management

    'The definition and selection of environmental performance indicators is still at an early stage but the use of indicators is increasing, both for the tracking of trends in pollution and other environmental issues at a large scale (national or regional) and also for the monitoring of Bank projects. This note provides a framework to assist in the selection of appropriate indicators for pollution ...


  • Particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban air of Tehran

    Epidemiological studies have shown correlations between the concentration of particles in the air and increase of daily rates of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and mortality (Douglas et al.,1992; Jonathan et al.,1995; Auron et al.,1995). Elevated lung cancer rates among women in rural china have been attributed to emissions from their coal-fired stoves (Mumford et al.,1987;Alder and ...


  • Particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban air of Tehran

    Epidemiological studies have shown correlations between the concentration of particles in the air and increase of daily rates of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and mortality (Douglas et al.,1992; Jonathan et al.,1995; Auron et al.,1995). Elevated lung cancer rates among women in rural china have been attributed to emissions from their coal-fired stoves (Mumford et al.,1987;Alder and ...


    By University of Tehran

  • Air pollution in Europe 1990-2004

    Overall picture This report analyses and presents changes in air pollutant emissions and their possible health or ecosystem impacts in Europe covering the period 1990–2004. Emissions of all air pollutants fell substantially during the period 1990–2004 in the 32 EEA member countries (EEA-32), resulting in improved air quality over the region. However, ambient concentrations of particulate ...

  • Air Pollution and Vulnerability: Solving the Puzzle of Prioritization

    While ambient air pollution levels in excess of prescribed health standards are generally unacceptable, the exceedance is even more serious in areas where people reside. Vulnerability caused by poverty, disease, lack of education, and poor living conditions exacerbates the problem. Air quality management plans identify prioritized strategies for improved air quality independent of consideration ...

  • Assessing Risk Information Concerning Coastal Runoff

    Executive Summary In coastal urban watersheds, runoff from the landscape eventually reaches the ocean. If beaches along the ocean are used for recreation, three vital and interrelated questions arise. First, whether and to what extent does urban runoff degrade the quality of ocean water that is used for recreation? Second, to what extent docs this runoff-related ocean pollution pose a ...

  • A Time Series Forecasting of Air Pollution in Indore

    Abstract. Forecasting involves the generation of a number, set of numbers, or scenario that corresponds to a future occurrence. It is absolutely essential to short-range and long-range planning. By definition, a forecast is based on past data, as opposed to a prediction, which is more subjective and based on instinct, get feel, or guess. For example, the evening news gives the weather ...


  • The health impacts of climate change and variability in developing countries

    Health is a focus reflecting the combined impacts of climate change on the physical environment, ecosystems, the economic environment and society. Long-term changes in the world's climate may affect many requisites of good health - sufficient food, safe and adequate drinking water and secure dwelling. The current large-scale social and environmental changes mean that we must assign a much higher ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Decision Analysis Applications for the Sustainability of Global Urban Water Resources and Drainage Systems

    ABSTRACTWater is one of the most vital elements needed for life. In many countries water supplies, especially for critical drinking water, are either being depleted or polluted. Too often these problems are magnified due to the lack of reliable drainage systems that provide proper stormwater and sanitary sewage collection and treatment of human generated wastewater. ...

  • Quantitative risk assessment for contaminated sites in Spain

    Environmental Quantitative Risk Assessment is one of the key factors in the Decision Making Process for contaminated sites. Numerous decisions have to be made before, during and after conducting a quantitative risk assessment.Risk assessment is based on the information gathered previously: Historical information (Phase I) Site characterization (Phase II) Toxicological ...

  • Science and policy challenges of atmospheric modelling in consideration of health effects

    Next generation atmospheric models are required to provide a realistic assessment of different types of chronic and acute environmental conditions and forecast the consequences on population health. These tasks were usually carried out with epidemiological studies, which are not adequate to indicate health effects. Therefore, models should be capable to carry out hazard identification, ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

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