water biological oxygen demand Articles

  • What are the differences between Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD)?

    Ask the expert: What are the differences between Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD)? Answer: Both COD and BOD test methods aim to give an indication of the amount of pollution in a water sample. COD is the amount of oxygen required to chemically breakdown the pollutants whereas BOD is the amount of oxygen ...


    By Camlab Limited

  • Oxygen Transfer in a Biological Aerated Filter

    The City of San Diego (City) operates the Point Loma Wastewater Treatment Plant (PLWTP) which can normally treat up to 240 million gallons per day (MGD) of chemically enhanced primary treated (CEPT) effluent for ocean disposal. The City wanted to understand the performance capabilities of Biological Aerated Filters (BAFs) in treating CEPT effluent to secondary standards. To this end, the City ...

  • Why is Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) a useful parameter for drinking water analysis?

    Ask the Expert: COD Analysis for Drinking Water Question: Why is Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) a useful parameter for drinking water analysis? Answer: At very basic level Chemical Oxygen ...


    By Camlab Limited

  • Seven Ways Your Facility Isn’t Meeting Effluent Regulations and How to Solve Them

    Whether you own, operate, or help manage a municipal or industrial facility that deals with wastewater, it’s important to understand how wastewater treatment can play a significant role in the overall health of your business, especially when it comes to meeting effluent regulations. This is an important part of the wastewater treatment process to consider, as ignoring it could earn your ...


    By SAMCO Technologies, Inc.

  • Biological Wastewater Treatment

    Untitled Document The use of microorganisms to remove contaminants from wastewater is effective and widespread. To choose the right system from the many options offered, ...


  • ppm Dissolved oxygen measurement

    Dissolved oxygen (D.O.) levels are used as a general indicator of water quality. Oxygen is essential to life and vital for countless aquatic forms. D.O. level control is critical in numerous applications ranging from the monitoring of industrial waste water to environmental surveillance. What is Dissolved Oxygen? Dissolved oxygen (D.O.) is the amount of oxygen gas dissolved in a ...


    By IC Controls Ltd.

  • Mechanical biological treatment trends

    Composting mixed municipal solid waste has a long tradition in Germany. In 1953, the first large-scale facilities in Baden-Baden and Blaubeuren started operating, followed later by plants in Heidelberg, Duisburg and other locations across the western part of Germany. Facilities were being opened to provide alternatives to landfilling MSW, and to produce compost for agricultural use. The quality ...


    By BioCycle Magazine

  • Biological phosphorus and nitrogen removal in sequencing batch reactors: effects of cycle length, dissolved oxygen concentration and influent particulate matter

    Removal of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) from municipal wastewaters is required to mitigate eutrophication of receiving water bodies. While most treatment plants achieve good N removal using influent carbon (C), the use of influent C to facilitate enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is poorly explored. A number of operational parameters can facilitate optimum use of influent C and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • From fresh water to waste water - AERZEN supplies oil-free oxygen to Nordland Papier

    The UPM Nordland Papier fine paper factory in Dörpen is the largest of its kind in Europe, producing up to 1.4 million tons of uncoated and coated paper every year with four machines. The company is part of UPM Paper ENA (Europe and North America), a worldwide leading manufacturer of graphic papers, with its head office in Germany and production facilities in Finland, the UK, France, Austria ...

  • Vermifilters: a tool for aerobic biological treatment of herbal pharmaceutical wastewater

    Herbal pharmaceutical wastewater possesses high chemical oxygen demand (COD) (21,960–26,000 mg/l) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (11,200–15,660 mg/l) and suspended solids (SS) (5,460–7,370 mg/l). It cannot be directly discharged into surface water bodies, due to its highly biodegradable nature. Herbal pharmaceutical wastewater has been treated by using vermifilter, which is an ecosystem ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Improving biological phosphorus removal in membrane bioreactors – a pilot study

    With increasing water reuse applications and possible stringent regulations of phosphorus content in secondary and tertiary effluent discharge in Florida, USA, alternative technologies beyond conventional treatment processes require implementation to achieve low phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) concentrations. A pilot scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) system, operated in Florida, adopted the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Biologically and Chemically Enhanced Clarification for Improved Treatment of Wet-Weather Flows

    The Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District (MMSD) conducted demonstration testing in 2005 to evaluate high-rate chemically enhanced clarification (CEC) followed by ultraviolet (UV) disinfection, for the treatment of wet-weather flows at MMSD’s two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). High-rate CEC—surface overflow rates greater than 20 gallons per minute (gpm) per square foot (ft2) [85 cubic ...

  • Treatment of oil-field produced water by combined process of Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR)-Biological Aerated Filter (BAF): a pilot study

    The combined process of Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) and Biological Aerated Filter (BAF) was used to treat the oil-field produced water. The experimental results showed that for ABR the removal efficiency of oil and COD was 84.5%, 40.8%, respectively, and the ratio of BOD5/COD of the effluent increased 24.8% when the flow rate was 0.3 m³/h. For the BAF, when the hydraulic loading rate was ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Controlling Parameters in Water Analysis

    The COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) is one of most important parameters in water analysis. In Germany as in nearly all European countries tax for indirect discharges is based on the COD. Using the oxygen consumption is reasonable in the case of tax because the delay time of waste water in a treatment plant depends mainly on its biological activity. The oxygen consumption again is a degree of ...


    By LAR Process Analysers AG

  • Operation of a solids contact tank at low dissolved oxygen and low total suspended solids concentrations

    Solids retention time (SRT) and dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) set points were optimized at a 32 MGD trickling filter-solids contact tank system. OPTImasterTM on-line optimization software was used for set points selection. Set points were maintained automatically using SRTmaster and DOmaster - sludge age and dissolved oxygen automatic control systems. Referenced above biological system was ...

  • Three Stage Biological Filter Process to Achieve Extremely Low Total Nitrogen Discharge to the Long Island Sound

    ABSTRACTIn an effort to enhance water quality in the Long Island Sound, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation has implemented stringent nitrogen discharge limits for Wastewater Treatment Plants that discharge to the Sound. Four Wastewater Treatment Plants owned and operated by Westchester County, New York are required to meet an average effluent total nitrogen discharge ...

  • Water reuse for the bottled water industry

    ABSTRACTThe bottled water industry uses a machine specifically designed for the washing of its containers (19-L capacity) and generates 6-L wastewater/container. This effluent can be used for watering of green areas and car washing. The objectives of the present work were to characterize the effluent and to propose a specific treatment to enable reuse of the effluent from the container washing ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Ozone for Waste water Treatment

    Ozone has been used for many years to treat pathogens such as bacteria and algae in water for applications such as drinking water supplies and air conditioning system cooling water. More recently, most water bottlers have adopted ozone. Ozonated water for treatment of fruit, vegetables, fish, etc. in the U.S. awaited the GRAS approval. Now that has happened, and projects are emerging everywhere. ...


  • Water treatment case study

    Wastewater is any water that has suffered in quality by human intervention. Often, wastewater is being treated for re-use as drinking water or for other purposes. As high levels of nutrition are available in these waters, algae may grow rapidly as well as other micro-organisms such as bacteria. Algae can compete for nutrients against the bacteria in charge of sludge reduction and can also clog ...


    By LG Sonic

  • Efficient Waste Water Treatment

    Clean drinking water is an essential need of mankind. Often surface water like rivers or lakes is used as drinking water source. To prevent these resources from pollution the effective treatment of waste water is a must. For example in China 75% of discharged waste water is coming from pulp and paper, textile and dyeing industries. To run a waste water treatment plant in the most efficient way ...


    By J.V. Niebergall CDH

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