water chemistry Articles

  • Reverse osmosis water chemistry

    Alkalinity: Alkalinity is comprised primarily of carbon dioxide, bicarbonate, carbonate and hydroxides. Naturally occurring alkalinity is the earth’s natural buffering system in that small doses of strong acids (e.g. acid rain) react with alkalinity and result in relatively small changes in pH. Carbon dioxide and bicarbonate are in a balance between the pH range of 4.4 and 8.2. At a pH of 4.4 or ...

  • A Discussion on Ozone Chemistry

    MEMBRANE AND APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT 1.0 INTRODUCTION The ability of ozone to effectively treat wastewater is dependent on the nature of contaminant in question. For example, ozone will readily remove color from a dye solution, but has much more difficulty reducing the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of a sucrose stream. These differences in ozone effectiveness are ...

  • Cycle chemistry pH measurement

    pH measurement in high purity water has met with variable success. The high resistivity of pure water, the vulnerability to contamination, the variability of reference electrodes and additional temperature effects converge to make tins a particularly challenging measurement. Overcoming these obstacles requires a thorough understanding of the potential problems and their systematic solution. ...


    By SnowPure Water Technologies

  • The Chemistry of Membrane Cleaning

    International Products Corporation (IPC), incorporated in 1923, manufactures specialty chemicals. IPC has over 30 years experience making and selling membrane cleaners and formulated lubricants to industry. IPC is the proud recipient of the 2013 Environmental Innovation award by the Suppliers Partnership for the Environment. All products are manufactured in the New Jersey headquarters and are ...

  • All about the chemistry

    Those looking for a single source for the provision of specialistcleaning services for the oil and gas industry need look no furtherthan Surface Active Solutions.“We are a solutions providing company,” says managing directorand founder John Harrison, “and in our approach the chemistryis always key. We specialise in MicroEmulsions Technology, ourpatented chemical cleaning ...

  • Chemistry of Chlorine Application and Production for the Disinfection of Water and Wastewater

     ABSTRACT A thorough understanding of chlorine and sodium hypochlorite chemistry is essential in optimizing their usage in disinfection of water and wastewater. High price of both chemicals and hazards involved in their transportation to plant sites have prompted many utilities to consider generation of these chemical on-site. A detailed discussion of the critical engineering concepts ...

  • Chemistries of Ozone for Municipal Pool and Spa Water Treatment

    Ozone generated by ultraviolet (UV) radiation is used in North America for treating (mostly residential) spa and pool waters almost exclusively, while only a handful of North American municipal pools and spas are using ozone generated by corona discharge technology in accordance with well–established German teachings. On the other hand, several thousand European municipal swimming pools and ...


    By Absolute Systems Inc.

  • Multiscale Drivers of Water Chemistry of Boreal Lakes and Streams

    Abstract The variability in surface water chemistry within and between aquatic ecosystems is regulated by many factors operating at several spatial and temporal scales. The importance of geographic, regional-, and localscale factors as drivers of the natural variability of three water chemistry variables representing buffering capacity and the importance of weathering (acid neutralizing ...


  • The Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: Celebrating 20 Years of Green Chemistry Innovation

    Bergeson & Campbell, P.C. (B&C®) and The Acta Group (Acta®) are deeply committed to supporting the development of greener, more sustainable chemical processes and products, and so we are pleased to help spread the news about a tremendous success story, featuring scientists from ...


    By Bergeson & Campbell, P.C.

  • Swimming Pool Chemistry made easy

    A new way to control biological activity in your swimming pool without using chemicals.  Healthier to you, savings in chemicals, savings in time and easy pool management.  Take a look at the full article and please contact me any where in the world if you would like to set up a similar system in your pool.  Waterdoc Limited is continuing to use this technology to improve water ...


    By Waterdoc Limited

  • History of super absorbent polymer chemistry

    Until the 1980’s, water absorbing materials were cellulosic or fiber-based products. Choices were tissue paper, cotton, sponge, and fluff pulp. The water retention capacity of these types of materials is only 20 times their weight – at most. In the early 1960s, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) was conducting work on materials to improve water conservation in soils. They ...

  • Multimetal accumulation in crustaceans in surface water related to body size and water chemistry

    Many relationships of bioaccumulation of metals have been derived in the past, but verification in the field is often lacking. In the present study, the authors collected field data on bioaccumulation in caged Daphnia magna and Gammarus roeseli in 12 different contaminated brooks. Besides generating a comprehensive data set on bioaccumulation for these species, the authors also checked whether ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • On the Seasonal Changes in the Surface Water Chemistry of Museum Lake, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India

    The surface water chemistry of Thiruvananthapuram Museum Lake was carried out in the period of February 2013 to January 2014. Correlation study of the parameters and overall CCME WQI (Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water quality Index) was also prepared in the study for the lake water. The parameters analysed are cations such as Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+ and K+ and the anions like PO4-, ...


    By University of Tehran

  • Comparative Studies of Water Chemistry of Four Tropical Lakes in Kenya and India

    Abstract: Water samples collected from three Rift Valley Lakes (Nakuru, Elementaita and Naivasha) in Kenya in June, 2002 and one lake in southern India (Kolleru) in non-monsoon and monsoon were studied in order to understand the water chemistry of the four tropical lakes. Results indicate that Lakes Nakuru and Elementaita are highly alkaline in nature compared to Lakes Naivasha and Kolleru. ...


  • Study of precipitation chemistry over an industrial city

    The growing trend of industrialization has marked impact on the atmospheric chemistry around the globe. Such impacts are also predicted for developing countries like India. Acid precipitation due to secondary pollutants is one of them. The present investigation was conducted with an aim of studying the precipitation chemistry over Asansol city, India during the monsoon season. The rain water ...

  • A connection between cycle chemistry & condenser configuration

    Abstract The most important contributor to power plant chemistry upset conditions and to the overall plant thermal efficiency is the condenser. In-leakage into the subatmospheric pressure, or shell side, of this important balance-of-plant component is responsible for most system wide corrosion, loss of availability and loss of heat transfer in boiler tubes due to deposition of ...


    By Intek, Inc.

  • Swimming Pool Chemistry Management Made Easy

    A new way to control biological activity in your swimming pool without using chemicals.  Healthier to you, savings in chemicals, savings in time and easy pool management.  Take a look at the full article and please contact me any where in the world if you would like to set up a similar system in your pool.  Waterdoc Limited is continuing to use this technology to improve water ...


    By Waterdoc Limited

  • Impact of catchment properties on aquatic chemistry in the rivers of Latvia

    The relationships between land use characteristics and aquatic chemistry (nutrient concentrations, major inorganic ions and indicators of organic matter concentrations) were analyzed to determine factors controlling the runoff of dissolved substances, spatial variability of water chemical composition and possible impacts of pollution sources in Latvia. Groups of factors were found to determine ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Surface and Rainwater Chemistry in Sri Lanka - A Risk of Acidification

    Abstract: Chemical constituents of surface and rain water in Sri Lanka were analysed to examine the susceptibility of aquatic environment for episodic acidification. The buffer intensity of different types of surface water ranged from 8.09 ± 4.61 × 10^{-4} to 55.05 ± 21.18 × 10^{-4} moles l^{-1} pH^{-1}. The pH values of the rainwater samples collected island-wide once and at Kandy on a regular ...


  • Ion chemistry of waters impounded by the Ziqlab dam, Jordan, and weathering processes – a case study

    The area included in the present investigation is that surrounding Ziqlab dam in the northern Jordan Valley. The water chemistry of the impounded lake shows that it is dominated by Mg, Ca, Na and HCO3. These waters reflects the dominance of carbonate weathering with some contribution of silicates. Mg + Ca + Na and HCO3 + Cl account for about 90% of the total ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

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