water chemistry Articles

  • Reverse osmosis water chemistry

    Alkalinity: Alkalinity is comprised primarily of carbon dioxide, bicarbonate, carbonate and hydroxides. Naturally occurring alkalinity is the earth’s natural buffering system in that small doses of strong acids (e.g. acid rain) react with alkalinity and result in relatively small changes in pH. Carbon dioxide and bicarbonate are in a balance between the pH range of 4.4 and 8.2. At a pH of 4.4 or ...

  • All about the chemistry

    Those looking for a single source for the provision of specialistcleaning services for the oil and gas industry need look no furtherthan Surface Active Solutions.“We are a solutions providing company,” says managing directorand founder John Harrison, “and in our approach the chemistryis always key. We specialise in MicroEmulsions Technology, ourpatented chemical cleaning ...

  • The Chemistry of Membrane Cleaning

    International Products Corporation (IPC), incorporated in 1923, manufactures specialty chemicals. IPC has over 30 years experience making and selling membrane cleaners and formulated lubricants to industry. IPC is the proud recipient of the 2013 Environmental Innovation award by the Suppliers Partnership for the Environment. All products are manufactured in the New Jersey headquarters and are ...

  • A Discussion on Ozone Chemistry

    MEMBRANE AND APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT 1.0 INTRODUCTION The ability of ozone to effectively treat wastewater is dependent on the nature of contaminant in question. For example, ozone will readily remove color from a dye solution, but has much more difficulty reducing the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of a sucrose stream. These differences in ozone effectiveness are ...

  • Chemistries of Ozone for Municipal Pool and Spa Water Treatment

    Ozone generated by ultraviolet (UV) radiation is used in North America for treating (mostly residential) spa and pool waters almost exclusively, while only a handful of North American municipal pools and spas are using ozone generated by corona discharge technology in accordance with well–established German teachings. On the other hand, several thousand European municipal swimming pools and ...


    By Absolute Systems Inc.

  • Chemistry of Chlorine Application and Production for the Disinfection of Water and Wastewater

     ABSTRACT A thorough understanding of chlorine and sodium hypochlorite chemistry is essential in optimizing their usage in disinfection of water and wastewater. High price of both chemicals and hazards involved in their transportation to plant sites have prompted many utilities to consider generation of these chemical on-site. A detailed discussion of the critical engineering concepts ...

  • High frequency monitoring needed to protect UK rivers - Case Study

    The science behind nutrient pollution in rivers is still poorly understood despite the fact that nitrate and phosphate concentrations in the UK’s rivers are mostly unacceptable, although an element of uncertainty exists about what an acceptable level actually is. Key to improving our understanding of the sources and impacts of nutrient pollution is high-resolution monitoring across a broad ...


    By OTT HydroMet

  • Multimetal accumulation in crustaceans in surface water related to body size and water chemistry

    Many relationships of bioaccumulation of metals have been derived in the past, but verification in the field is often lacking. In the present study, the authors collected field data on bioaccumulation in caged Daphnia magna and Gammarus roeseli in 12 different contaminated brooks. Besides generating a comprehensive data set on bioaccumulation for these species, the authors also checked whether ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Cycle chemistry pH measurement

    pH measurement in high purity water has met with variable success. The high resistivity of pure water, the vulnerability to contamination, the variability of reference electrodes and additional temperature effects converge to make tins a particularly challenging measurement. Overcoming these obstacles requires a thorough understanding of the potential problems and their systematic solution. ...


    By SnowPure Water Technologies

  • On the Seasonal Changes in the Surface Water Chemistry of Museum Lake, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India

    The surface water chemistry of Thiruvananthapuram Museum Lake was carried out in the period of February 2013 to January 2014. Correlation study of the parameters and overall CCME WQI (Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water quality Index) was also prepared in the study for the lake water. The parameters analysed are cations such as Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+ and K+ and the anions like PO4-, ...


    By University of Tehran

  • Swimming Pool Chemistry made easy

    A new way to control biological activity in your swimming pool without using chemicals.  Healthier to you, savings in chemicals, savings in time and easy pool management.  Take a look at the full article and please contact me any where in the world if you would like to set up a similar system in your pool.  Waterdoc Limited is continuing to use this technology to improve water ...


    By Waterdoc Limited

  • History of super absorbent polymer chemistry

    Until the 1980’s, water absorbing materials were cellulosic or fiber-based products. Choices were tissue paper, cotton, sponge, and fluff pulp. The water retention capacity of these types of materials is only 20 times their weight – at most. In the early 1960s, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) was conducting work on materials to improve water conservation in soils. They ...

  • The Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: Celebrating 20 Years of Green Chemistry Innovation

    Bergeson & Campbell, P.C. (B&C®) and The Acta Group (Acta®) are deeply committed to supporting the development of greener, more sustainable chemical processes and products, and so we are pleased to help spread the news about a tremendous success story, featuring scientists from ...


    By Bergeson & Campbell, P.C.

  • Sources of Nitrate in Snowmelt Discharge: Evidence From Water Chemistry and Stable Isotopes of Nitrate

    To determine whether NO3−, concentration pulses in surface water in early spring snowmelt discharge are due to atmospheric NO3−,, we analyzed stream δ,15N-NO3−, and δ,18O-NO3−, values between February and June of 2001 and 2002 and compared them to those of throughfall, bulk precipitation, snow, and groundwater. Stream total Al, DOC and Si concentrations were used ...


    By Springer

  • Ion chemistry of waters impounded by the Ziqlab dam, Jordan, and weathering processes – a case study

    The area included in the present investigation is that surrounding Ziqlab dam in the northern Jordan Valley. The water chemistry of the impounded lake shows that it is dominated by Mg, Ca, Na and HCO3. These waters reflects the dominance of carbonate weathering with some contribution of silicates. Mg + Ca + Na and HCO3 + Cl account for about 90% of the total ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Swimming Pool Chemistry Management Made Easy

    A new way to control biological activity in your swimming pool without using chemicals.  Healthier to you, savings in chemicals, savings in time and easy pool management.  Take a look at the full article and please contact me any where in the world if you would like to set up a similar system in your pool.  Waterdoc Limited is continuing to use this technology to improve water ...


    By Waterdoc Limited

  • Retention of humic acid from water by nanofiltration membrane and influence of solution chemistry on membrane performance

    Membrane technology and the related separation systems such as reverse osmosis (RO) and nanfiltration (NF) membranes are now widely recognized as the best technologies for water treatment (Zularisam et al., 2006). However, fouling remains as one of the major challenges in membrane applications. Fouling of RO and NF membranes causes  significant loss of productivity and added operational ...


    By University of Tehran

  • The acute toxicity of major ion salts to Ceriodaphnia dubia: I. Influence of background water chemistry

    The ions Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl‐, SO42‐, and HCO3‐/CO32‐ (referred to here as “major ions”) are present in all fresh waters and are physiologically required by aquatic organisms, but can increase to harmful levels from a variety of anthropogenic activities. It is also known that the toxicities of major ion salts can vary depending on the concentrations of other ions, and understanding these ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Monitoring surface water chemistry near magnesium chloride dust suppressant treated roads in Colorado

    Received for publication January 31, 2009. Magnesium chloride (MgCl2)-based dust suppression products are commonly used throughout western United States on nonpaved roads for dust suppression and road stabilization by federal, state, and county transportation agencies. The environmental implications of annually applying these products throughout spring and summer months on adjacent stream ...

  • A connection between cycle chemistry & condenser configuration

    Abstract The most important contributor to power plant chemistry upset conditions and to the overall plant thermal efficiency is the condenser. In-leakage into the subatmospheric pressure, or shell side, of this important balance-of-plant component is responsible for most system wide corrosion, loss of availability and loss of heat transfer in boiler tubes due to deposition of ...


    By Intek, Inc.

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