water chlorination Articles

  • Chlorination

    Chlorination is the process of adding compounds containing the element chlorine, generally in oxidation state (0) or (I), to water as a method of water purification to make it fit for ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Chlorine

    Due to the complexity of chlorine chemistry, the activity and forms of chlorine is not well understood. Its reactions are not always 'predictable' and are somewhat unique. This memo is intended to provide some simple insight of the most common forms of chlorine that we at Osmonics® encounter. The most basic form of chlorine is Chlorine Gas (Cl2). This is usually the cheapest form of chlorination, ...

  • Chlorination

    Chlorination is the process of adding compounds containing the element chlorine, generally in oxidation state (0) or (I), to water as a method of water purification to make it fit for ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Methods of Purification by Water Innovations, Inc.

    Carbon Filtration is used for several reasons. Its primary purpose is the reduction of chlorine to less than 0.1 ppm. Chorine can damage softener resins, reverse osmosis membranes, and mixed bed deionization resins. Activated carbon will also help control tastes and odors, provide organic and hazardous organic chemical reduction, and some particulate reduction. ...


    By Water Innovations, Inc

  • Water Treatment Optimization - Case Study

    Drinking water treatment in North America has stringent requirements for effluent water quality, with a great amount of attention being drawn to the presence of hazardous disinfection by-products (DBPs) persisting through water distribution systems. The operation of water treatment plants involves addition of various mixing agents to help with coagulation and settling of organics in the raw water ...


    By MANTECH

  • Dangers of Chlorine

    Most of us have grown up with the idea that whiter whites (and brighter colors) mean cleaner clothes. We continue to use chlorine products with abandon to whiten and to disinfect. We write on white paper and bathe in and drink chlorinated water. After all, who wants bacteria-infested water? In our society, chlorine is ubiquitous-and so are its side effects. In fact, the long-term residual effects ...

  • Sequential chlorination for reclaimed water disinfection

    ABSTRACT The Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County (Districts) operate seven tertiary water reclamation plants (WRPs) with a combined treatment capacity of approximately 200 million gallons per day (MGD). Chloramination is used at these WRPs for effluent disinfection. It was recently discovered that chloramination results in formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), a compound with ...

  • Drinking water: the problem of chlorinous odours

    Chlorinous off-flavours in drinking water are a leading cause of complaints to Australian water utilities and other utilities worldwide. The occurrence and causes of chlorinous odours in drinking water were investigated with the use of an odour panel, trained using a modified flavour profile analysis technique. A new system for classifying water types according to the causes of chlorinous odours ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Chlorine resistant membrane: the mechanism of membrane degradation by chlorine

    Polyamide reverse osmosis membrane used successfully for water desalination is made from the interfacial reaction of meta-phenylenediamine (MPD) with trimesoyl chloride. One problem with the membrane is that its performance is deteriorated upon prolonged exposure to chlorine often used for disinfecting feed water. ATR-FTIR and XPS analysis show chlorine reacts with the amide hydrogen and is ...


    By Toray Chemical Korea

  • Chlorination By-Products in Chlorinated Cooling Water of some European Coastal Power Stations

    Chlorination by-products (CBPs) are formed as a result of ti;: cnlorination of power station cooling waterfor anti-foulingpurposes. Their production was studiedat IO coastal power stations in the UK, France and The Netherlands. Three categories of CBPs were determined: trihalomethanes; haloacetonitriles; and halophenols. Bromoform was the CBP most abundantly present in the efluents of all 10 ...


  • The effect of chlorine and combined chlorine/UV treatment on coliphages in drinking water disinfection

    Chlorine disinfection is a globally used method to ensure the safety of drinking water. However, it has not always been successful against viruses and, therefore, it is important to find new methods to disinfect water. Seventeen different coliphages were isolated from the treated municipal wastewater. These coliphages and MS2 were treated with different dosages of chlorine in drinking water, ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Chlorination By-Products in Chlorinated Cooling Water of some European Coastal Power Stations

    Chlorination by-products (CBPs) are formed as a result of the chlorination of power station cooling water for anti-fouling purposes. Their production was studied at 10 coastal power stations in the UK, France and The Netherlands. Three categories of CBPs were determined: trihalomethanes; haloacetonitriles; and halophenols. Bromoform was the CBP most abundantly present in the efluents of all 10 ...


    By Sweco Nederland BV

  • The Wonders of Ammonia & Chlorine

    The two most common chemicals found in your home, office and commercial facilities in one form or another are Ammonia (NH3) and Chlorine (Cl2). They are also two of the oldest and most widely produced chemicals in commercial use around the world. Ammonia, a refrigerant by “nature” Refrigeration by mechanical means goes back to the 1800s and ammonia was among the earliest chemicals to ...

  • Chlorine mystery solved

    Following the installation of in-pipe drinking water quality monitoring sondes, distribution engineers discovered an occasional significant disparity between the Intellisondes’ data and results from grab samples tested by a photometer tablet (DPD) method. For most of the time, there was close agreement between the two methods, but periodically, the photometer results varied wildly, whilst ...


    By Intellitect Water Ltd

  • Controoling chlorine costs

    The most widespread disinfectant used in the treatment of drinking water is chlorine, which can be applied in a variety of ways. History has taught us that, in bacteriological terms, chlorinating water is a proven way of disinfecting drinking water. After all, more than 75 years have passed since chlorine was used to disinfect drinking water for the first time. Many years of experience have shown ...


  • Chlorine levels in pools

    In response to a SportExcel CPD seminar in April 2004 on pool water disinfection ISRM is reissuing this updated guidance. Also, recent press reports have highlighted the theoretical risks of high chlorine levels in swimming pools in relation to both pregnant women and levels of childhood asthma. This further reinforces the need for operators to provide the highest pool water standards possible. ...

  • Chemistry of Chlorine Application and Production for the Disinfection of Water and Wastewater

     ABSTRACT A thorough understanding of chlorine and sodium hypochlorite chemistry is essential in optimizing their usage in disinfection of water and wastewater. High price of both chemicals and hazards involved in their transportation to plant sites have prompted many utilities to consider generation of these chemical on-site. A detailed discussion of the critical engineering concepts ...

  • Trihalomethane formation in ozonated and chlorinated surface water

    Abstract The relatively recent discovery of disinfection by-products has driven the main regulatory organisms to set maximum contaminant levels for certain substances in drinking water. Trihalomethanes can be deemed as the most important group of by-products in chlorinated surface waters. The present work has focused on trihalomethane formation in a full-scale water treatment plant. We studied ...


    By Springer

  • Electrochemically activated water as an alternative to chlorine for decentralized disinfection

    Electrochemically activated (ECA) water is being extensively studied and considered as an alternative to chlorine for disinfection. Some researchers claim that ECA is by and large a chlorine solution, while others claim the presence of reactive oxygen species such as ozone and hydroxyl radicals in addition to chlorine. This study compares sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and ECA in terms of ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • NOM reactivity with chlorine in low SUVA water

    Natural organic matter (NOM) in surface water with low specific UV absorbance in Tianjin, China, was fractionated using XAD resins and ultra-filtration membranes into different groups based on hydrophobicity and molecular weight (MW), respectively. The effects of the pre-chlorination process on each fraction were also studied. The hydrophilic acid (HPIA) fraction was the main organic component of ...


    By IWA Publishing

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