water chlorination system Articles

  • Drinking water: the problem of chlorinous odours

    Chlorinous off-flavours in drinking water are a leading cause of complaints to Australian water utilities and other utilities worldwide. The occurrence and causes of chlorinous odours in drinking water were investigated with the use of an odour panel, trained using a modified flavour profile analysis technique. A new system for classifying water types according to the causes of chlorinous odours ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Chlorination By-Products in Chlorinated Cooling Water of some European Coastal Power Stations

    Chlorination by-products (CBPs) are formed as a result of ti;: cnlorination of power station cooling waterfor anti-foulingpurposes. Their production was studiedat IO coastal power stations in the UK, France and The Netherlands. Three categories of CBPs were determined: trihalomethanes; haloacetonitriles; and halophenols. Bromoform was the CBP most abundantly present in the efluents of all 10 ...


    By Aquator B.V.

  • Controoling chlorine costs

    The most widespread disinfectant used in the treatment of drinking water is chlorine, which can be applied in a variety of ways. History has taught us that, in bacteriological terms, chlorinating water is a proven way of disinfecting drinking water. After all, more than 75 years have passed since chlorine was used to disinfect drinking water for the first time. Many years of experience have shown ...


  • Standard Chlorine of Delaware Remediation

    By designing a 70-foot deep barrier wall, Black & Veatch was able to cut off contaminant source areas from a creek near New Castle, Delaware. The groundwater treatment system that Black & Veatch designed prevents site contamination from reaching the underlying drinking water aquifer. The Standard Chlorine of Delaware Site is a 65 acre area including an abandoned chlorobenzene ...


    By Black & Veatch Corporation

  • Chlorine Theory & Measurement

    Chlorine, dissolved in liquid is one of the most effective and economical semi-killers for the treatment of water to make it potable or safe to drink. Chlorine's powerful disinfectant qualities come from its ability to bond with and destroy the outer surfaces of bacteria and viruses. Drinking water chlorination is one of the most widely used methods to safeguard chinking water supplies. In ...


    By IC Controls Ltd.

  • Less Chlorine for Korean Mussels

    Abstract “KHNP used to apply conhinuous chiorination as an antifouling regime in iheir cooiing water system. Deveiopment of a new regime based on KEMA’s Pulse-Chlorination principie enabied the company lo reduce its chiorine use considerabiy. This means iower energy consumplion and reduced environmentai impaci,” explains KEMA’s Harry Poiman. KEMA recentiy completed a project in South Korea for ...


    By Sweco Nederland BV

  • Sanitation Using Ozone & Chlorine

    For nearly 100 years, ozone has been used all over the world for water sanitation. It is nature’s strongest oxidizer and has a byproduct of pure oxygen. Chlorine, on the other hand, is a very effective, time-proven chemical, but is ineffective against hard-to-kill microorganisms such as cryptosporidium. It also has some unpleasant byproducts. Together, however, these two substances can ...

  • Effect of advanced water treatment on behaviour of residual chlorine and development of chlorine control method in distribution systems

    The behaviour of residual chlorine concentration in drinking water treated by the mid-chlorination or the advanced water treatment (AWT) was investigated. The AWT removes dissolved organic matter more than the mid-chlorination, thus the rate of residual chlorine reduction is decreased. The analysis of chlorine concentration data measured by automated continuous monitoring devices revealed that ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Impact of incomplete mixing in the prediction of chlorine residuals in municipal water distribution systems

    This paper investigates the mixing phenomena in pipe junctions in water distribution systems. Network simulation models frequently assume that mixing at pipe junctions is complete and instantaneous. In the present study, a series of experiments using tee and cross junctions with varying inflows and free chlorine concentrations were carried out in the Hydraulic Laboratory of the Institute of ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • A general framework of chlorine decay modeling at a pilot-scale water distribution system

    Understanding the variation of chlorine concentrations in water distribution systems is important for determining the schedule of rechlorination. Maintaining an appropriate chlorine concentration in domestic tap water and a sustainable residual chlorine in water distribution systems is an important commitment to ensure high drinking water quality. A generic modeling framework is proposed to ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Filtration & Chlorination Systems: Household Water Treatment Options in Developing Countries

    Five household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS)  options – chlorination, solar disinfection, ceramic filtration, sand filtration, and flocculation/disinfection – are proven to improve microbiological quality and prevent diarrheal disease in developing countries.  Other options – such as filtration & ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Controlling the addition of Chlorine into a Process

    There are several methods for controlling the addition of chlorine into a process. These methods include flow proportional injection, ORP (oxidation reduction potential) or a residual chlorine analyzer. Each method measures a different process characteristic. Depending on the specific type of process being controlled, there generally is a best choice for controlling the injection of either ...


    By Walchem, Iwaki America Inc.

  • Reference: Clever water recycling with chlorine dioxide

    Vapour water at the Crailsheim-Dinkelsbühl dairy is disinfected and then returned to the production process by means of a chlorine dioxide system. The great news is that this significantly reduces water consumption and operating costs. Fewer costs The 160 members of staff at the diary "Milchwerk Crailsheim-Dinkelsbühl eG" process around 130,000 tonnes of milk a year, ...

  • Ultraviolet Light Oxidation of Free-Chlorine in Water

    Chlorine is the most frequently used chemical for water disinfection. Many industrial and commercial manufacturing facilities cannot tolerate the introduction of chlorine into the process because of contamination and unwanted chemical reactions. Chlorine affects the flavour and odour of drinks and fluids, accelerates corrosion on process vessels and piping, and can also damage delicate process ...

  • Key Operating Strategies for Chlorine Disinfection Operating Systems

    ABSTRACTChlorine has been used as a standard for disinfecting wastewater for many years. While being the standard There are many levels of automation for control of disinfection. To select the best control approach for your facility both control strategies and chlorination chemistry must be understood. Permit conditions must also be fully identified; organism concentrations and operational data. ...

  • On-Site Chlorine Generation Feasibility Study

     ABSTRACT Gaseous chlorine has been effectively used for disinfection in drinking water and wastewater treatment for decades. While various regulatory programs have placed numerous restrictions on the uses of this chemical due to its hazardous nature, recent focus on the possibility of a terrorist attack at a drinking water or wastewater facility, has underscored the potential hazard ...

  • Case study - Chlorinated groundwater treatment

    Overview A Fortune 50 company implemented a remedial project to collect and treat polluted groundwater from a site in Central New York, preventing the mitigation of impacted groundwater from flowing into local waterways. An engineering and construction firm was hired to design and build an effective, efficient groundwater treatment system. Collection of the polluted water would be ...

  • Pulse-Chlorination®, the Best Available Technique in Macrofouling Mitigation Using Chlorine

    In 1998, KEMA developed a new chlorination method called Pulse-Chlorination®. It enables optimal antifouling treatment with a minimum use of chlorine. This technology is based on the principle that in general mussels and clams have a re-covery period after exposure to chlorination before opening fully and restarting filtration. The method takes advantage of this recovery time by using short ...


    By Sweco Nederland BV

  • Case study - Chlorinated groundwater treatment

    Problem A Fortune 50 company implemented a remedial project to collect and treat polluted groundwater from a site in Central New York, preventing the mitigation of impacted groundwater from flowing into local waterways. An engineering and construction firm was hired to design and build an effective, efficient groundwater treatment system. Collection of the polluted water would be done ...

  • Chlorine gas protection - Case Study

    Application As part of a scheme to bring safe drinking water to 1.5 million people in Omdurman City, part of Greater Khartoum, Biwater International was appointed by the Government of Sudan to undertake a major turnkey design and construction project. Chlorine is the conventional means of water disinfection, so Biwater brought in ERG to design and manufacture the emergency gas ...

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