water clarification Articles

  • Primary clarification evaluation and optimization study

    This report describes the evaluation and optimization of primary clarifiers at the San Jose/Santa Clara Water Pollution Control Plant. Part 1 of this report examines the individual effect of the concentration of non-settleable solids, detention time, clarifier depth, sludge blanket level, and design feature of the clarifier on primary effluent quality and removal efficiency. Part 2 of this report ...


    By Entech Design, Inc.

  • Clarification of algae-laden water using electrochemical processes

    Algae contamination of surface water and drinking water supplies is a significant problem particularly in rural areas. A decentralized inexpensive technology that would effectively remove algae from water would be beneficial. Electrocoagulation (EC) combined with electroflotation (EF) as a single process (ECF) is a promising algae harvesting technique with no moving parts that may be powered ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Operating Chemically Enhanced Clarification for Optimum Disinfection Performance

    ABSTRACTThe Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District conducted demonstration tests in 2005 to evaluate chemically enhanced clarification (CEC) of wet-weather flows at the District’s two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). CEC offers the potential to treat intermittent high wetweather flows, produce high-quality effluent, and fit into the limited space at the plant sites. Two CEC processes were ...

  • Rusko Water Treatment Works, Tampere, Finland: AquaDAF® Clarification System

    Situation: In the 1960’s, the City of Tampere, Finland began drawing water from Lake Roine when the quality of water from its original lake source deteriorated. A horizontal sedimentation basin was constructed in the early 70’s and a laminar flotation process was implemented in 1989. Activated carbon replaced sand filtration in 1996, but the City was still not satisfied with its drinking ...

  • Influence of water compositions on fouling of plane organic membrane in frontal filtration: application to water and wastewater clarification

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and quantify the filterability of suspended/soluble organic and suspended inorganic matter in a condition without and with chemical conditioning on membrane fouling using cake filtration model. The experiments were conducted with different feed water concentrations under a given TMP (0.2 to 0.5 bar). The fouling potential was examined and described in terms ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Biologically and Chemically Enhanced Clarification for Improved Treatment of Wet-Weather Flows

    The Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District (MMSD) conducted demonstration testing in 2005 to evaluate high-rate chemically enhanced clarification (CEC) followed by ultraviolet (UV) disinfection, for the treatment of wet-weather flows at MMSD’s two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). High-rate CEC—surface overflow rates greater than 20 gallons per minute (gpm) per square foot (ft2) [85 cubic ...

  • Flocculation-Flotation vs. MBR for High MLSS Secondary Clarification

    Abstract Rendering plants produce high strength wastewater with high TSS, FOG, BOD and TKN. At one such plant it was decided to install a primary DAF followed by an anaerobicanoxic-aerobic treatment system for TSS, FOG, TKN and BOD removal. Since wastewater is a high strength (TSS up to 10,000, FOG up to 3,000, TKN up to 350 and BOD up to 6,000 mg/l, respectively, bioreactors will produce ...

  • Development of polyethersulfone and polyacrylonitrile hollow fiber membranes for clarification of surface water and fungal enzyme broth

    Hollow fiber membranes are of great commercial interest with several applications at the forefront of research to carryout bioseparations, drinking water purification, wastewater treatment besides liquid phase separations and gaseous separations. An experimental study was carried out to synthesize hollow fiber membranes from polyethersulfone (PES) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) polymers to ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Simultaneous clarification and endogenous post denitrification by up-flow through a layer of floating media

    KeywordsBiological nutrient Removal, Post denitrification, Clarifier design, Pilot study IntroductionMethods to comply with the most updated low effluent total nitrogen (TN) regulations include, in addition to a high internal circulation ratio to a pre-denitrification stage, either a large intermediate anoxic zone, or a post denitrification stage with ...

  • Pilot Study Application of Tertiary Clarification and Filtration to Meet Proposed Ultra Low Phosphorous Discharge Limits on The Spokane River

    The Spokane River flows through northern Idaho and eastern Washington. The Washington State Department of Ecology is proposing to implement an interim phosphorous TMDL (total maximum daily load) of 50 ppb, and a final TMDL of 10 ppb on all point source discharges to the river. Biological treatment alone is not sufficient to meet these levels, requiring the addition of tertiary physical/chemical ...

  • Potato Flume Water 1

    This client transports potatoes from their receiving dock to the processing area of the plant in a water flume. This process removes the dirt from the fields. The pH was 6.3 and did not require pH adjustment. The sample was tested with I, H, and K and it was determined that the K was the best product for clarity, reduced dosage and floc size. The samples were treated with 0.13 grams of Floccin-I, ...


    By Integrated Engineers Inc.

  • Methods of Water Purification

    This article is excerpted from 'Pure Water Handbook' published by Osmonics®, Inc. of Minnetonka, Minnesota USA and is printed with permission of Osmonics, Inc. Water treatment can be defined as any procedure or method used to alter the chemical composition or natural 'behavior' of a water supply. Water supplies are classified as either surface water or groundwater. The majority of public or ...

  • Coagulation and flocculation in water and wastewater treatment

    Coagulation and flocculation are an essential part of drinking water treatment as well as wastewater treatment.  This article provides an overview of the processes and looks at the latest thinking.  Material for this article was largely taken from reference (1). Coagulation and flocculation are essential processes in various disciplines. In potable water treatment, ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Loch Turret water treatment works

    Actiflo® high rate sand ballasted clarification & multiflo lamella sludge thickening plant The Loch Turret upgrade was the largest drinking water project for Scottish Water in the latest investment period. The scheme was taken over in 2010 and is delivers approx 85 million litres of drinking water per day The Client Scottish Water is the UK's fourth largest ...


  • Waste Water Recycle/Reuse Project (Tap Water) – Phuket, Thailand

    Producing high quality water from Municipality Waste Warer in Phuket Thailand a famous Tourists Destination. W.O.G Group has been awarded a Waste Water Recycle/Reuse Project by Patong Municipality, Phuket, Thailand to increase municipal water supply in Phuket. CLIENT’S OBJECTIVE: To treat sewage water (25 MLD) to the same quality standards as that supplied by the ...


    By WOG Technologies Inc.

  • Advanced Water Treatment Technologies May Bring Purified Water to San Diego

    'In four years, half of San Diego may be filling its glasses with tap water that once ran through its toilets,' reported the San Diego Union-Tribune recently. A plan to mix 'repurified water' with the City's raw drinking water reservoir could become a reality, thanks to the wonders of water treatment technology. Such a possibility elicits various reactions including disgust, marvel and fear. ...

  • Rold Model Water Recycling Program

    ABSTRACTThe Viejas Band of Kumeyaay Indians, a federally recognized tribe, vested with authority by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), form the Tribal Government to regulate all activities concerning water quality issues within the reservation boundaries. The Reservation has 400 non-transient residents and an average of 5,000 transient residents. The transient population visits the ...

  • An assessment of static and dynamic models to predict water treatment works performance

    The relative accuracy of static and dynamic water treatment works (WTWs) models was examined. Case study data from an operational works were used to calibrate and verify these models. It was found that dynamic clarification, filtration and disinfection models were more accurate than static models at predicting the final water quality of an operational site but that the root mean square errors ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Arguments for involving the public in water management: evidence from local and regional water plans in the Netherlands

    Public participation has become increasingly important in the water sector. However, the question remains as to what exactly is meant by participation. This paper explores the different ways that participation is understood in local and regional water plans and visions in the Dutch water sector. Partly driven by the key role played by participatory water management under the European Water ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Paper Mill Water Closure: A Success Story

    Today the Pulp & Paper and Wood Products Industries are faced with tightening water quality and volume discharge regulations. Whether discharging to a local treatment facility or discharging to a river the economic impact is substantial. This article outlines a typical situation where the production facility utilized the latest expertise and most efficient  equipment to cost-effectively ...


    By World Water Works, Inc.

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