water conditioning Articles

  • What are the main indicators of water quality?

    “Water is the driving force of all nature;” so said Leonardo da Vinci. The survival of our planet depends on the availability of water and the condition that it is in. It is therefore vital to make sure that it is able to provide a hospitable environment for those that live in it, and is free from harmful levels of substances for those that drink it. Not ...


    By Aquaread Limited

  • Tech Tips: Membrane Preconditioning

    What is membrane preconditioning and why is it recommended to precondition new flat sheet or spiral woundmembranes prior to use? Membrane preconditioning is a filtration step using deionized water as feed solution and is typically ...


    By Sterlitech Corporation

  • The Water Conditions in Ethiopia, Part One

    In August, I was able to visit northern Ethiopia to look at some of the drinking water issues. As you might guess, there are many, ranging from polluted water to almost no water at all. That made it interesting to discover the inhabitants of Adwa and Aksum rely on a reservoir. The reservoir water is treated first by aeration to oxidize iron, then with a flocculant which attracts dirt like a ...


  • Structural conditions in German water supply

    Against the background of price controls for drinking water supply utilities in Germany, the comparability of utilities with regard to their specific structural conditions comes into focus. Relevant structural conditions were identified for the two main technical processes, namely water production (WP) and treatment, storage and distribution (TSD). A defined clustering process for comparable ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • The Water Conditions in Ethiopia, Part Two

    While in Ethiopia in August to learn more about what they do about drinking water, I visited the Debre Damo Monastery. About 1,600 years old, it is situated on a flat-topped outcropping of solid rock. The only way in or out is by climbing a sheer cliff using a 15 meter rope made from woven rawhide. The top supports a community of about 150 monks. Certainly the most extreme location I found people ...


  • High groundwater site conditions

    Specific site conditions: BIOROCK non-electrical sewage treatment plants are unlike other wastewater treatment systems and are perfectly suitable for high groundwater conditions. BIOROCK plants can be installed in high water table or high groundwater sites by one of our trained installers. Our Research and Development team worked hard to find the best design to fit to difficult UK installation ...


    By BIOROCK S.à.r.l

  • Water supply in Jordan under drought conditions

    This paper discusses the Mujib Dam reservoir's storage during the drought years of 2007–2009. It has been concluded that the policy of unplanned water release during the dry year 2007, when little attention was paid to the possibility of a continuation of the drought, contributed to the remarkable lack of surface water storage during 2008, another dry year. For better management and planning, ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Improved oxygen conditions in the Baltic deep water

    Oxygen conditions in the south eastern Baltic have improved thanks to an inflow of oxygen-rich water from the North Sea during November/December 2011. This inflow has also caused the concentrations of phosphate and silicate to increase in the surface waters, which could cause excessive algal blooms this summer. As a result of the relatively large inflow from the Kattegat to the Baltic ...

  • Component-holistic condition assessment of water distribution networks

    The work presented herein presents an expanded methodology for imprinting the condition of an urban water distribution network (WDN). Even though the majority of past research efforts related to WDNs deal with water mains (WMs), only a small part of the research studies have considered house connections (HCs) in the analysis and very few researchers have examined how the failure of pipe ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Effect of different water conditions on dissolution of nanosilver

    This study evaluates the time-dependent dissolution of nanosilver (nAg) in common electrolytes and natural waters. nAg was synthesized via Tollens’ method using sodium citrate as stabilizer; its morphology, UV–Vis spectrum, and particle size were characterized. The dissolved silver was monitored over time using filtration, centrifugation, and inductively coupled plasma atomic ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Total Dynamics of Quartz–Water System at Ambient Conditions

    New data on the dissolution and growth of quartz in acid, nearly neutral and slightly alkaline solutions at ambient conditions are presented. During batch dissolutions, aqueous Si-concentrations increased nonlinearly towards limit values. During parallel growth experiments, however, the high Si-concentrations corresponding to 13-fold supersaturation with respect to quartz did not decreased. To ...


    By Springer

  • Valves in Water System of Heating Air Condition

    Common valves in water system of heating air condition include gate valve, globe valve and butterfly valve.   Gate vale For its moderate length, rotary adjusting rod and good regulating performance, gate valve is widely utilized in large caliber pipes.   Globe valve Globe valve is suitable for small caliber pipes for its long length, ...

  • Asset condition estimation and depreciation

    Vitens is one of three water companies in The Netherlands, with 2.3 million connections, 5.4 million customers, 47,5000km of pipes and 96 treatment works that provide 330M.m3 a year of potable water at a cost of €1.32/m3 ($1.72/m3). Each day the company receives calls from customers reporting leaks. The maintenance division provides information on the pipe material and diameter, and the business ...


    By Innovyze

  • Developing Reference Conditions For Phytoplankton in The Baltic Coastal Waters

    For the implementation of the Water Framework Directive reference conditions have to be established for the various quality element. In this report we outline a number of approaches that can be pursued for establishing reference conditions for phytoplankton at a regional level and discuss the problems associated with their application. This report does not exhaust the topic of establishing ...


  • Air Conditioning That`s Out of This World

    New materials enhance the cooling effects from outer space to reduce energy use in small- to medium-sized buildings Reducing air conditioning energy use by using new materials to enhance the cooling effects from outer space may not be such a far-out idea. In a simulation study using DOE's Energy Plus software and ...


    By US Department of Energy

  • Genetic algorithm-based optimization of water resources allocation under drought conditions

    The efficient allocation of increasingly scarce water resources is a growing challenge worldwide, particularly during times of drought. This paper describes the development and application of an innovative technique to optimize the allocation of raw water supply to the city of London, UK during a period of drought in 2006. Using genetic algorithms, an optimization tool was developed to derive ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Organophosphate Pesticide Degradation Under Drinking Water Treatment Conditions

    Chlorpyrifos (CP) was used as a model compound to develop experimental methods and prototype modeling tools to forecast the fate of organophosphate (OP) pesticides under drinking water treatment conditions. CP was found to rapidly oxidize to chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) in the presence of free chlorine. The primary oxidant is hypochlorous acid (HOCl); thus, oxidation is more rapid at lower pH (i.e., ...

  • Enhanced decomposition of 1,4-dioxane in water by ozonation under alkaline condition

    1,4-Dioxane is a probable human carcinogenic and refractory substance that is widely detected in aquatic environments. Traditional wastewater treatment processes, including activated sludge, cannot remove 1,4-dioxane. Removing 1,4-dioxane with a reaction kinetic constant of 0.32 L/(mol·s) by using ozone, a strong oxidant, is difficult. However, under alkaline environment, ozone generates ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Managing Great Lakes Water Levels Adaptively in Response to Changing Climate Conditions

    The Laurentian Great Lakes contain an abundance of fresh water, collectively representing approximately 20% of the fresh surface water available globally. Despite the enormity of this resource, water levels and flows in the Great Lakes are subject to fluctuations caused by changing climate conditions that have cascading impacts on the coastal ecosystem and the regional economy. Proactive ...


    By LimnoTech Inc.

  • Abutment scour in clear-water and live-bed conditions by GMDH network

    In the present study, the Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH) network has been utilized to predict abutments scour depth for both clear-water and live-bed conditions. The GMDH network was developed using a Back Propagation algorithm (BP). Input parameters that were considered as effective variables on abutment scour depth included properties of sediment size, geometry of bridge abutments, and ...


    By IWA Publishing

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