water conditioning Articles

  • Structural conditions in German water supply

    Against the background of price controls for drinking water supply utilities in Germany, the comparability of utilities with regard to their specific structural conditions comes into focus. Relevant structural conditions were identified for the two main technical processes, namely water production (WP) and treatment, storage and distribution (TSD). A defined clustering process for comparable ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Improved oxygen conditions in the Baltic deep water

    Oxygen conditions in the south eastern Baltic have improved thanks to an inflow of oxygen-rich water from the North Sea during November/December 2011. This inflow has also caused the concentrations of phosphate and silicate to increase in the surface waters, which could cause excessive algal blooms this summer. As a result of the relatively large inflow from the Kattegat to the Baltic ...

  • Water supply in Jordan under drought conditions

    This paper discusses the Mujib Dam reservoir's storage during the drought years of 2007–2009. It has been concluded that the policy of unplanned water release during the dry year 2007, when little attention was paid to the possibility of a continuation of the drought, contributed to the remarkable lack of surface water storage during 2008, another dry year. For better management and planning, ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Effect of different water conditions on dissolution of nanosilver

    This study evaluates the time-dependent dissolution of nanosilver (nAg) in common electrolytes and natural waters. nAg was synthesized via Tollens’ method using sodium citrate as stabilizer; its morphology, UV–Vis spectrum, and particle size were characterized. The dissolved silver was monitored over time using filtration, centrifugation, and inductively coupled plasma atomic ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Silo Storage Stirrer Standard Shaft Mounted Gear Drive

    TheSilo Storage Stirrer mixer is a continuous discharge type mortar mixer which is developed and manufactured according to domestic and foreign technical and practical working conditions. It adopts anti-separation mortar storage tank and drum mixer continuously. Sexual closure and fusion, the mortar directly enters the mixing tank water pump through the guide butterfly valve to automatically add ...


    By Sogears

  • Total Dynamics of Quartz–Water System at Ambient Conditions

    New data on the dissolution and growth of quartz in acid, nearly neutral and slightly alkaline solutions at ambient conditions are presented. During batch dissolutions, aqueous Si-concentrations increased nonlinearly towards limit values. During parallel growth experiments, however, the high Si-concentrations corresponding to 13-fold supersaturation with respect to quartz did not decreased. To ...


    By Springer

  • Component-holistic condition assessment of water distribution networks

    The work presented herein presents an expanded methodology for imprinting the condition of an urban water distribution network (WDN). Even though the majority of past research efforts related to WDNs deal with water mains (WMs), only a small part of the research studies have considered house connections (HCs) in the analysis and very few researchers have examined how the failure of pipe ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Water

    Water is the most valuable asset on earth, which determines to a significant extent the development of life in all corners of the world. 95% of the amount of water on earth is chemically bound in rocks making it impossible to utilize and be part of the hydrological cycle. ...


    By Palaplast

  • Safety Considerations at Anaerobic Digestion Plants

    Anaerobic digestion is a collection of processes which naturally breakdown organic matter to eventually produce biogas - a methane rich gas which is burned to produce both heat and electricity. The methane can also be used as vehicle fuel or injected into the gas grid. The industry is growing fast and is forecast to continue to do so with many farmers adding bio-gas plants alongside their ...

  • Reorganization of water demand under changing conditions with possibilistic programming

    To adapt water resources management to changing conditions, the amount of water allocated to the different demands may be redistributed to satisfy water availability constraints. To achieve this, an interactive possibilistic programming procedure is proposed. The main criterion for the reorganization of water allocation to irrigation demands is net water productivity. To cope with uncertainty in ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Organophosphate Pesticide Degradation Under Drinking Water Treatment Conditions

    Chlorpyrifos (CP) was used as a model compound to develop experimental methods and prototype modeling tools to forecast the fate of organophosphate (OP) pesticides under drinking water treatment conditions. CP was found to rapidly oxidize to chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) in the presence of free chlorine. The primary oxidant is hypochlorous acid (HOCl); thus, oxidation is more rapid at lower pH (i.e., ...

  • Transboundary water allocation under water scarce and uncertain conditions: a stochastic bankruptcy approach

    Designing a feasible and stable water sharing mechanism for transboundary river basins is a big challenge. The stochastic and uncertain characteristics of water flow in these rivers is among the main reasons which make the formation of cooperative coalitions with feasible water allocations and self-enforceable allocation agreements difficult. When the water in these river basins is scarce the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • High groundwater site conditions

    Specific site conditions: BIOROCK non-electrical sewage treatment plants are unlike other wastewater treatment systems and are perfectly suitable for high groundwater conditions. BIOROCK plants can be installed in high water table or high groundwater sites by one of our trained installers. Our Research and Development team worked hard to find the best design to fit to difficult UK installation ...


    By BIOROCK S.à.r.l

  • Abutment scour in clear-water and live-bed conditions by GMDH network

    In the present study, the Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH) network has been utilized to predict abutments scour depth for both clear-water and live-bed conditions. The GMDH network was developed using a Back Propagation algorithm (BP). Input parameters that were considered as effective variables on abutment scour depth included properties of sediment size, geometry of bridge abutments, and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Enhanced decomposition of 1,4-dioxane in water by ozonation under alkaline condition

    1,4-Dioxane is a probable human carcinogenic and refractory substance that is widely detected in aquatic environments. Traditional wastewater treatment processes, including activated sludge, cannot remove 1,4-dioxane. Removing 1,4-dioxane with a reaction kinetic constant of 0.32 L/(mol·s) by using ozone, a strong oxidant, is difficult. However, under alkaline environment, ozone generates ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Extension of an existing model for soil water evaporation and redistribution under high water content conditions

    Most crop, hydrology, and water quality models require the simulation of evaporation from the soil surface. A model developed by J.T. Ritchie in 1972 provides useful algorithms for estimating soil evaporation, but it does not calculate the soil water redistribution resulting from evaporation. A physically-based model using diffusion theory, described previously by Suleiman and Ritchie in 2003, ...

  • Securing safe drinking water supply under climate change conditions

    Water suppliers worldwide are challenged by climate variations, but so far only the qualitative change in boundary conditions has become clear but not yet the degree and impact on the water supply systems. Short-term quality changes in surface waters can, e.g. be caused by extreme rainfalls after dry periods. Longer heat periods without rain can induce middle-term quality changes in surface ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Managing Great Lakes Water Levels Adaptively in Response to Changing Climate Conditions

    The Laurentian Great Lakes contain an abundance of fresh water, collectively representing approximately 20% of the fresh surface water available globally. Despite the enormity of this resource, water levels and flows in the Great Lakes are subject to fluctuations caused by changing climate conditions that have cascading impacts on the coastal ecosystem and the regional economy. Proactive ...


    By LimnoTech Inc.

  • Genetic algorithm-based optimization of water resources allocation under drought conditions

    The efficient allocation of increasingly scarce water resources is a growing challenge worldwide, particularly during times of drought. This paper describes the development and application of an innovative technique to optimize the allocation of raw water supply to the city of London, UK during a period of drought in 2006. Using genetic algorithms, an optimization tool was developed to derive ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • The influence of reaction conditions in the oxidation of organic compounds of nuclear laundry water by ozone

    This paper presents a summary of degrading organic compounds of nuclear laundry water by ozonation in different conditions of pH, hydrogen peroxide and ultraviolet radiation. The degradation of organic compounds was analysed by chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). The optimal degradation conditions were at pH 7 with ozone, UV radiation and ...


    By IWA Publishing

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