water conductivity Articles

  • The fundamental conductivity and resistivity of water

    Pure water has a very low. but not quite zero, electrical conductivity. This conductivity provides a probe into fundamental properties of water, including the electrochemical mobility of the hydrogen and hydroxide ions. Deviation from this value is a measure of trace ionic impurities. Ultrapure water (UPW). with impurities at or below the sub-parts-per-billion range, is used extensively in many ...


    By SnowPure Water Technologies

  • Flow Rate Measurement in full Pipes using the Transit Time Method

    Particularly in large diameters the relevance of water volume measurement is growing. The challenge with cooling water or fresh water processes is to generate accurate flow recordings or to document and to control individual consumptions and withdrawal quantities. Flow detection, however, particularly in large diameters is highly demanding. In such cases the transit time measurement thanks to its ...


    By NIVUS GmbH

  • Importance of Inspecting Reservoirs

    Inspecting Reservoirs – what is the importance of them, why they are inspected, and how ROVs help pave the way for low-cost, regular maintenance. What is a Reservoir? Deriving from the French word réservoir meaning “storehouse,” a reservoir is exactly that – a storage place for water. More often than not, these bodies of water are ...


    By Deep Trekker Inc.

  • MSW Management: Safely Countering the Rise of Landfill Odors

    One of the core challenges of landfill and compost site management is fighting the rise of foul odors. In addition, as communities expand further out from previous areas, they eventually become neighbors to landfills – calling for a comprehensive odor-control approach to countering odor complaints. In fact, compared to other industrial applications such as wastewater treatment and asphalt ...


    By OMI Industries (OMI)

  • 10 Reasons why you should continuously monitor low temperature and liquid chemical sterilants for worker safety

    1. Sterilant chemicals are highly toxic Low temperature and liquid chemical sterilants are designed to kill all microorganisms including resistant spores and if they were not toxic, they would not be effective in sufficiently high concentration to destroy all microbial life including the chemically resistant sporicidal forms of certain ...


    By ChemDAQ, Inc.

  • Los Angeles County WRRF Embraces Codigestion

    Technology to produce food waste slurry key to project implementation - and helps generators comply with California organics recycling mandates. The Sanitation Districts’ JWPCP in Carson (CA) treats an average of 280 million gallons/day of wastewater. One of the two anaerobic digestion tanks above has been used for codigestion, with the second serving as the control. Photos ...


    By BioCycle Magazine

  • Pure water pH measurement in low conductivity samples

    Normally, pH measurements are made in water with 1,000 to 10,000 uS/cm conductivity. The conductivity conies from dissolved solids, typically, salts plus net acid or base which explains the exhibited pH. These dissolved substances are in the solution in ion form, which makes such solutions conducting. With 1,000 uS/cm conductivity of mobile ions pH electrodes have a good circuit and give fast, ...


    By IC Controls Ltd.

  • Conducting surveys for water supply and sanitation in Indonesia

    Surveys can vary in cost and complexity depending upon the sample size, number of questions and degree of accuracy. But sometimes, even after huge expenditures, the results can be misleading or just plain wrong. Simple surveys to determine willingness to pay or consumer preferences can be accomplished by the local government for minimal expense and still provide ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Measure pH, conductivity, oxygen with HQD

    After just a short time, the HQD digital electrochemical measuring system has already established itself in practice. Both in the laboratory, with standard electrodes, and in the field, with rugged outdoor electrodes.  On the following pages, users describe their experience with the HQD system. Their experiences show that the system covers a wide range of applications, including direct ...


  • Pedotransfer functions to determine water conducting macroporosity in South African soils

    Macropores play an important role in the rapid transport of water, solutes and pollutants through the soil. Transport through these pores (>0.5 mm) is dominated by gravitational forces (i.e. matrix forces have low impact) resulting in flow rates orders of magnitude higher than rates that would be predicted, posing problems for modelling and understanding water and solute transport through soils. ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Conductivity Measurement in high purity water samples below 10 microsiems/cm

    High Purity Water Resistivity/ Conductivity Measurement Ultra-Pure Water without any chemical impurities will still have a conductivity because of the presence of H* and OH" ions due to the self-ionization of water. Ultra-pure water has a conductivity of 0.055 HSiemens'cm or a resistivity of 18.18 mQ-cm at 25 °C. In order to know the conductivity or resistivity of ultra-pure water it is ...


    By IC Controls Ltd.

  • Methodological considerations when conducting bench scale polychromatic ultraviolet irradiation of water

    The use of a bench scale apparatus (often referred to as a ‘collimated beam’) to apply fluences to water samples is common practice in disinfection research and in validating the performance of full-scale UV disinfection reactors. This study investigated the sources of potential experimental variations in the calculation of fluence when conducting polychromatic collimated beam ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Effect of temperature on streambed vertical hydraulic conductivity

    In this study, in situ and on-site permeameter tests were conducted in Clear Creek, Nebraska, USA to evaluate the effect of water temperature on streambed vertical hydraulic conductivity Kv. Fifty-two sediment cores were tested. Five of them were transferred to the laboratory for a series of experiments to evaluate the effect of water temperature on ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • CProb: a computational tool for conducting conditional probability analysis

    Conditional probability is the probability of observing one event given that another event has occurred. In an environmental context, conditional probability helps to assess the association between an environmental contaminant (i.e., the stressor) and the ecological condition of a resource (i.e., the response). These analyses, when combined with controlled experiments and other methodologies, ...

  • Parameter Sensitivity of Hydraulic Conductivity Testing Procedure

    A methodology is presented that allows researchers to identify which parameters have the largest effect on key parameter(s), and thereby a priori direct investigations to concentrate on the most important area(s) of concern. Laboratory testing is often used in research to establish the effect of one or more parameters on one or more other parameters of concern. Because laboratory testing often is ...


    By ASTM International

  • Conducting The Phase I Assessment - Records Review

     This is the second in a series of five articles relating to conducting Phase I Environmental Site assessments. Each article attempts to give the reader a thorough understanding of a specific aspect of the Phase I process and Clayton’s commitment to meeting or exceeding the requirements of ASTM Standard E 1527 Standard Practice for Environmental Site Assessments: Phase I Environmental Site ...


  • A method for measuring saturated hydraulic conductivity in Anisotropic soils

    Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) is an important soil parameter that is difficult to measure, especially in an anisotropic medium. Many methods for determining Ks have been developed over time, but taking different water flow directions into consideration is possible in only a few of them; furthermore, these few methods cannot be universally applied. The method proposed here allows Ks to be ...

  • The heterogeneity of 3-D vertical hydraulic conductivity in a streambed

    The heterogeneity of vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kv) is a key attribute of streambed for researchers investigating surface water–groundwater interaction. However, few three-dimensional (3-D) Kv models with high spatial resolutions have been achieved. In this study, in-situ permeameter tests were conducted to obtain ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Should your company be conducting life cycle analyses?

    Many companies have already answered yes to that question – for a combination of reasons typically related to stakeholder interest, key customer demands, public perception, and competitive positioning.  In fact, life cycle analysis (LCA) has increasingly become an important tool in mature corporate sustainability programs, providing organizations with a consistent methodology for ...


    By Trinity Consultants

  • Environmental governance, service quality and drinking water: a participatory diagnosis conducted through a water ombudsman

    This study focuses mainly on the search for new-generation models of democracy based on the principles of governance and the quality of public drinking water services. We analyse the participatory initiatives implemented by the Argentinian government over the past twenty years and look at how these have led to alternative models for utility operators. The study describes users’ perceptions ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

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