water conductivity Articles

  • Get more out of Water Resources Engineering Models

    The effort required to develop water resources engineering models can be significant. But once developed, in many instances the models are only evaluated for a limited, or a single set of conditions. The results and predictions obtained from these evaluations are the ones used in design, presented in reports and conveyed to decision makers and the public. This approach might serve ...


    By XP Solutions

  • The fundamental conductivity and resistivity of water

    Pure water has a very low. but not quite zero, electrical conductivity. This conductivity provides a probe into fundamental properties of water, including the electrochemical mobility of the hydrogen and hydroxide ions. Deviation from this value is a measure of trace ionic impurities. Ultrapure water (UPW). with impurities at or below the sub-parts-per-billion range, is used extensively in many ...


    By SnowPure Water Technologies

  • Conducting surveys for water supply and sanitation in Indonesia

    Surveys can vary in cost and complexity depending upon the sample size, number of questions and degree of accuracy. But sometimes, even after huge expenditures, the results can be misleading or just plain wrong. Simple surveys to determine willingness to pay or consumer preferences can be accomplished by the local government for minimal expense and still provide ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Pure water pH measurement in low conductivity samples

    Normally, pH measurements are made in water with 1,000 to 10,000 uS/cm conductivity. The conductivity conies from dissolved solids, typically, salts plus net acid or base which explains the exhibited pH. These dissolved substances are in the solution in ion form, which makes such solutions conducting. With 1,000 uS/cm conductivity of mobile ions pH electrodes have a good circuit and give fast, ...


    By IC Controls Ltd.

  • Measure pH, conductivity, oxygen with HQD

    After just a short time, the HQD digital electrochemical measuring system has already established itself in practice. Both in the laboratory, with standard electrodes, and in the field, with rugged outdoor electrodes.  On the following pages, users describe their experience with the HQD system. Their experiences show that the system covers a wide range of applications, including direct ...


  • Conductivity Measurement in high purity water samples below 10 microsiems/cm

    High Purity Water Resistivity/ Conductivity Measurement Ultra-Pure Water without any chemical impurities will still have a conductivity because of the presence of H* and OH" ions due to the self-ionization of water. Ultra-pure water has a conductivity of 0.055 HSiemens'cm or a resistivity of 18.18 mQ-cm at 25 °C. In order to know the conductivity or resistivity of ultra-pure water it is ...


    By IC Controls Ltd.

  • Methodological considerations when conducting bench scale polychromatic ultraviolet irradiation of water

    The use of a bench scale apparatus (often referred to as a ‘collimated beam’) to apply fluences to water samples is common practice in disinfection research and in validating the performance of full-scale UV disinfection reactors. This study investigated the sources of potential experimental variations in the calculation of fluence when conducting polychromatic collimated beam ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Pedotransfer functions to determine water conducting macroporosity in South African soils

    Macropores play an important role in the rapid transport of water, solutes and pollutants through the soil. Transport through these pores (>0.5 mm) is dominated by gravitational forces (i.e. matrix forces have low impact) resulting in flow rates orders of magnitude higher than rates that would be predicted, posing problems for modelling and understanding water and solute transport through soils. ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Effect of temperature on streambed vertical hydraulic conductivity

    In this study, in situ and on-site permeameter tests were conducted in Clear Creek, Nebraska, USA to evaluate the effect of water temperature on streambed vertical hydraulic conductivity Kv. Fifty-two sediment cores were tested. Five of them were transferred to the laboratory for a series of experiments to evaluate the effect of water temperature on ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • A method for measuring saturated hydraulic conductivity in Anisotropic soils

    Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) is an important soil parameter that is difficult to measure, especially in an anisotropic medium. Many methods for determining Ks have been developed over time, but taking different water flow directions into consideration is possible in only a few of them; furthermore, these few methods cannot be universally applied. The method proposed here allows Ks to be ...

  • CProb: a computational tool for conducting conditional probability analysis

    Conditional probability is the probability of observing one event given that another event has occurred. In an environmental context, conditional probability helps to assess the association between an environmental contaminant (i.e., the stressor) and the ecological condition of a resource (i.e., the response). These analyses, when combined with controlled experiments and other methodologies, ...

  • Parameter Sensitivity of Hydraulic Conductivity Testing Procedure

    A methodology is presented that allows researchers to identify which parameters have the largest effect on key parameter(s), and thereby a priori direct investigations to concentrate on the most important area(s) of concern. Laboratory testing is often used in research to establish the effect of one or more parameters on one or more other parameters of concern. Because laboratory testing often is ...


    By ASTM International

  • The heterogeneity of 3-D vertical hydraulic conductivity in a streambed

    The heterogeneity of vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kv) is a key attribute of streambed for researchers investigating surface water–groundwater interaction. However, few three-dimensional (3-D) Kv models with high spatial resolutions have been achieved. In this study, in-situ permeameter tests were conducted to obtain ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Should your company be conducting life cycle analyses?

    Many companies have already answered yes to that question – for a combination of reasons typically related to stakeholder interest, key customer demands, public perception, and competitive positioning.  In fact, life cycle analysis (LCA) has increasingly become an important tool in mature corporate sustainability programs, providing organizations with a consistent methodology for ...


    By Trinity Consultants

  • Underwater Bridge Inspections – Drones Conducting Remote Evaluations

    Deep Trekker Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROV), or underwater drones, are establishing themselves as the ideal tool for underwater bridge inspections. It goes without saying that the structural integrity of a bridge is extremely important; after all, you’re only either walking, driving, or riding a train across it. With the public safety in mind and to continue the flow of traffic, these ...


    By Deep Trekker Inc.

  • Conducting The Phase I Assessment - Records Review

     This is the second in a series of five articles relating to conducting Phase I Environmental Site assessments. Each article attempts to give the reader a thorough understanding of a specific aspect of the Phase I process and Clayton’s commitment to meeting or exceeding the requirements of ASTM Standard E 1527 Standard Practice for Environmental Site Assessments: Phase I Environmental Site ...


  • Environmental governance, service quality and drinking water: a participatory diagnosis conducted through a water ombudsman

    This study focuses mainly on the search for new-generation models of democracy based on the principles of governance and the quality of public drinking water services. We analyse the participatory initiatives implemented by the Argentinian government over the past twenty years and look at how these have led to alternative models for utility operators. The study describes users’ perceptions ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Temperature dependent thermal conductivity enhancement of copper oxide nanoparticles dispersed in propylene glycol-water base fluid

    Nanofluids are new generation heat transfer fluids and are preferred over conventional fluids for heat transfer applications. Nanofluids are characterised by their enhanced thermal conductivities, high energy density and better heat transfer capabilities than the base fluids without nanoparticles. Glycol based fluids exhibit an anti-freezing characteristics at sub zero temperatures and hence ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Vertical disparity in electrical conductivity of groundwater: inferring water-bearing fractures in granitic aquifer

    A detailed study was conducted in hard rock terrain for delineating water-bearing fractures using electrical conductivity (EC) logs. The EC logs of groundwater were taken both in pre- and post-monsoon seasons of the year 2001; in 25 borewells in a small granitic watershed at an interval of 1 m right from the water table (though narrow spacing wherever required) till the depth to bottom of the ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

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